Protein arginine methylation: Cellular functions and methods of analysis
ABSTRACT During the last few years, new members of the growing family of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) have been identified and the role of arginine methylation in manifold cellular processes like signaling, RNA processing, transcription, and subcellular transport has been extensively investigated. In this review, we describe recent methods and findings that have yielded new insights into the cellular functions of arginine-methylated proteins, and we evaluate the currently used procedures for the detection and analysis of arginine methylation.
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ABSTRACT: Methylation at arginine residues (R) is an important post-translational modification that regulates a myriad of essential cellular processes in eukaryotes, such as transcriptional regulation, RNA processing, signal transduction and DNA repair. Arginine methylation is catalyzed by a family of enzymes known as protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). PRMTs are classified as Type I or Type II, depending on the position of the methyl group on the guanidine of the methylated arginine. Previous reports have linked symmetric R methylation to transcriptional repression, while asymmetric R methylation is generally associated with transcriptional activation. However, global studies supporting this conclusion are not available. Here we compared side by side the physiological and molecular roles of the best characterized plant PRMTs, the Type II PRMT5 and the Type I PRMT4, also known as CARM1 in mammals. We found that prmt5 and prmt4a;4b mutants showed similar alterations in flowering time, photomorphogenic responses and salt stress tolerance, while only prmt5 mutants exhibited alterations in circadian rhythms. An RNA-seq analysis revealed that expression and splicing of many differentially regulated genes was similarly enhanced or repressed by PRMT5 and PRMT4s. Furthermore, PRMT5 and PRMT4s co-regulated the expression and splicing of key regulatory genes associated with transcription, RNA processing, responses to light, flowering, and abiotic stress tolerance, being candidates to mediate the physiological alterations observed in the mutants. Our global analysis indicates that two of the most important Type I and Type II arginine methyltransferases, PRTM4 and PRMT5, have mostly overlapping as well as specific, but not opposite, roles in the global regulation of gene expression in plants.BMC Genomics 12/2015; 16(1). DOI:10.1186/s12864-015-1399-2 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background In eukaryotes, histone arginine methylation associates with both active and repressed chromatin states depending on the residues involved and the status of methylation. Even when the amino-terminus of Entamoeba histolytica histones diverge from metazoan sequences, these regions contain arginine residues that are potential targets for methylation. However, histone arginine methylation as well as the activity of arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) has not been studied in this parasite. The aim of this work was to examine the dimethylation of arginine 3 of H4 histone (H4R3me2) and to identify the parasite PRMT that could be responsible for this modification (EhPRMT1). Methods To examine the presence of H4R3me2 in E histolytica, we performed Western blot and immunofluorescence assays on trophozoites using an antibody against this epigenetic mark. To recognize the PRMT1 enzyme of this parasite that possibly perform that modification, we first performed a phylogenetic analysis of E. histolytica and human PRMTs. RT-PCR assays were carried out to analyze the expression of the putative PRMT1 genes. One of these genes was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was tested by its recognition by an antibody against human PRMT1 and in its ability to form homodimers and to methylate commercial histones. Results The arginine 3 of human H4, which is subjected to post translational methylation, was aligned with the arginine 8 of E. histolytica H4, suggesting that this residue could be methylated. The recognition of an 18 kDa nuclear protein of E. histolytica by an antibody against H4R3me2 confirmed this assumption. We found that this parasite expresses three phylogenetic and structural proteins related to PRMT1. Antibodies against the human PRMT1 detected E. histolytica proteins in cytoplasm and nuclei and recognized a recombinant PRMT1 of this parasite. The recombinant protein was able to form homodimers and homotetramers and displayed methyltransferase activity on arginine 3 of chicken H4. Conclusion All these results suggest that E. histolytica contains as a minimum one structural and functional protein ortholog to PRMT1, enzyme that potentially dimethylates H4R8. This modification may play an important role in the gene expression regulation of this microorganism.Parasites & Vectors 04/2015; 2015(8):219. DOI:10.1186/s13071-015-0820-7 · 3.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed female cancer in the world. Though therapeutic treatments are available to treat breast cancer and in some instances are successful, the occurrence of unsuccessful treatment, or the rate of tumour recurrence, still remains strikingly high. Therefore, novel therapeutic treatment targets need to be discovered and tested. The protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) are a family of enzymes that catalyse arginine methylation and are implicated in a myriad of cellular pathways including transcription, DNA repair, RNA metabolism, signal transduction, protein-protein interactions and subcellular localisation. In breast cancer, the expression levels and enzymatic activity of a number of PRMTs is dysregulated; significantly altering the regulation of many cellular pathways that are implicated in breast cancer development and progression. Here, we review the current knowledge on PRMTs in breast cancer and provide a rationale for how PRMTs may provide novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of breast cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.Mutagenesis 03/2015; 30(2):177-189. DOI:10.1093/mutage/geu039 · 3.50 Impact Factor