Behavioral tests for preclinical intervention assessment.
ABSTRACT Select functional outcome tests commonly used for evaluating sensorimotor and cognitive capacity in rodents with focal intracerebral ischemic or hemorrhagic injury are described, along with upgrades and issues of concern for translational research. An emphasis is placed on careful quantitative and qualitative assessment of acute and long-term behavioral deficits, and on avoidance of frequent pitfalls. Methods for detecting different degrees of injury and treatment-related improvements are included. Determining the true potential of an intervention requires a set of behavioral analyses that can monitor compensatory learning. In a number of preclinical outcome tests, animals can develop remarkably effective "tricks" that are difficult to detect but frequently lead to dramatic improvements in performance, particularly with repeated practice. However, some interventions may facilitate learning without promoting brain repair, but these may not translate into a meaningful level of benefit in the clinic. Additionally, it is important to determine whether there are any preinjury functional asymmetries in order to accurately assess damage-related changes in behavior. This is illustrated by the fact that some animals have chronic endogenous asymmetries and that others, albeit infrequently, can sustain a spontaneous cerebral stroke, without any experimental induction, that can lead to chronic deficits as reflected by behavioral, imaging, and histological analyses. Finally, a useful new modification of the water maze that involves moving the platform from trial to trial within the target quadrant is reviewed, and its advantages over the standard version are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Stroke is the major cause of death and the most frequent cause of disability in the adult population worldwide. Guanosine plays an important neuroprotective role in several cerebral ischemic models and is involved in the modulation of oxidative responses and glutamatergic parameters. Because the excessive reactive oxygen species produced during an ischemic event can trigger an inflammatory response, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that guanosine is neuroprotective against focal cerebral ischemia, inhibits microglia/macrophages activation, and mediates an inflammatory response ameliorating the neural damage. Permanent focal cerebral ischemia was induced in adult rats, and guanosine was administered immediately, 1, 3, and 6 h after surgery. Twenty-four hours after ischemia, the asymmetry scores were evaluated by the cylinder test; neuronal damage was evaluated by Fluoro-Jade C (FJC) staining and propidium iodide (PI) incorporation; microglia and immune cells were evaluated by anti-Iba-1 antibody; and inflammatory parameters such as interleukins (IL): IL-1, IL-6, IL-10; tumor necrosis factors alpha (TNF-α); and interferon-gamma (INF-γ) were evaluated in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid. The ischemic event increased the levels of Iba-1-positive cells and pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased IL-10 levels (an anti-inflammatory cytokine) in the lesion periphery. The guanosine treatment attenuated the changes in these inflammatory parameters and also reduced the infarct volume, PI incorporation, and number of FJC-positive cells, improving the functional recovery. Thus, guanosine may have been a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of ischemic brain injury by reduction of inflammatory process triggered in an ischemic event.Molecular Neurobiology 11/2014; · 5.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Remote areas connected to cortical infarcts, such as the thalamus, are affected by stroke due to delayed retrograde degeneration of afferent connections. This is temporally associated with the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) and calcium. Here we tested a hypothesis that prevention of excessive Ca(2+) influx into the axoplasm via the reverse Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) would provide axonal protection and eventually lessen the Aβ and calcium load in the thalamus. We found that chronic treatment with a specific inhibitor of the reverse NCX, KB-R7943 (30mg/kg once daily, 27 days) after middle cerebral artery occlusion did not prevent atypical secondary pathology in the thalamus or improve functional outcome. The present data do not support a role for reverse NCX activity in the complex pathology within the thalamus after cerebral ischemia.Neuroscience Letters 08/2014; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Increased efficacy of the multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for the treatment of CNS injuries has been shown when they are administrated within a collagen scaffold, an environment in three dimensions (3D), when compared to the cultivation over a plastic surface (2D). We evaluated the MSC therapeutic effect in the 2D and 3D conditions using the model of focal cortical ablation. Male Wistar rats were submitted to the ablation by aspiration. Intravenous injection (IV) of MSC cultured in 2D, and the intralesional administration (IL) of MSC cultured in 2D or 3D were tested. Administrations were made 24h after ablation. Unskilled and skilled forelimb movements were evaluated by sensorimotor tests. The level of cytokines was measured two days after ablation in the 2D IV groups. Only the MSC 3D IL promoted recovery of the skilled movements. MSC 2D IV promoted recovery of the unskilled movements in all tests, and the MSC 3D IL promoted it only in the adhesive test. MSC 2D IL was unable to promote any recovery. DAPI-stained MSC was found in the perilesional parenchyma at the third post-ablation day after 2D and 3D IL. A significant reduction in the levels of cytokines by the MSC 2D IV was observed in the plasma. Our study strengthens the evidences of the MSC as a prospective therapeutic approach for the CNS injuries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of the Neurological Sciences 12/2014; · 2.26 Impact Factor