Reproductive cycle-associated mood symptoms in women with major depression and bipolar disorder
ABSTRACT We sought to determine the prevalence of, and association between, reproductive cycle-associated mood symptoms in women with affective disorders. We hypothesized that symptoms would correlate with each other across a woman's reproductive life span in both major depression (MDD) and bipolar I disorder (BP).
2412 women with, MDD or BP were asked standardized questions about mood symptoms prior to menstruation, within a month of childbirth and during perimenopause. Lifetime rates for each of these symptom types were determined and an odds ratio was calculated correlating each of the types with the others.
Of 2524 women with mood disorders, 67.7% reported premenstrual symptoms. Of those at risk, 20.9% reported postpartum symptoms and 26.4% reported perimenopausal symptoms. The rates did not differ between women with MDD and BP but were significantly different from women who were never ill. The symptoms were significantly correlated in women with MDD with odds ratios from 1.66 to 1.82, but were not in women with BP.
This is a secondary analysis of a sample that was collected for other purposes and is based upon retrospective reporting.
Reproductive cycle-associated mood symptoms were commonly reported in women with mood disorders and did not differ based on diagnosis. In MDD, but not BP, the occurrence of these symptoms was trait-like as the presence of one predicted the occurrence of the others. Further prospective study is required to clarify the determinants of this trait.
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ABSTRACT: We sought to determine clinical predictors of postpartum depression (PPD), including the role of medication, in a sample of women followed prospectively during and after pregnancy. Women with a history of mood disorder were recruited and evaluated during each trimester and 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postpartum. DSM-IV criteria for a major depressive episode were assessed by a psychiatric interview at each time point. Sixty-three women with major depression and 30 women with bipolar disorder entered the study and 75.4 % met DSM-IV criteria for a MDE during pregnancy, postpartum, or both. We modeled depression in a given time period (second trimester, third trimester, or 1 month postpartum) as a function of medication use during the preceding period (first, second, or third trimester). The odds of being depressed for those who did not use medication in the previous period was approximately 2.8 times that of those who used medication (OR 2.79, 95 % CI 1.38-5.66, p = 0.0048). Of 38 subjects who were psychiatrically well during the third trimester, 39.5 % (N = 15) met the criteria for a MDE by 4 weeks postpartum. In women who developed PPD, there was a high rate of a family history of PPD (53.3 %) compared to women who did not develop PPD (11.8 %, p = 0.02). While the use of psychiatric medications during pregnancy reduced the odds of being depressed overall, the use of psychiatric medications during pregnancy may not protect against PPD in women at high risk, particularly those with a family history of PPD.Archives of Women s Mental Health 07/2014; 18(1). DOI:10.1007/s00737-014-0432-9 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to examine the association between oral contraceptive use (any current use, duration, and type) and major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and panic disorder (PD) in a nationally representative sample of women in the USA. Data were drawn from 1,105 women aged 20-39 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 1999 to 2004. The associations between self-reported use of oral contraceptives in the past year and DSM-IV diagnosed and subthreshold MDD, GAD, and PD in the past year were assessed comparing oral contraceptive users to all non-users, former users, and former long-term users. Women using oral contraceptives had a lower past-year prevalence of all disorders assessed, other than subthreshold MDD. When adjusted for confounders, women using oral contraceptives in the past year had significantly lower odds of subthreshold PD, compared to former users (odds ratio (OR) = 0.34, 95 % CI 0.14-0.84). Effects estimates were strongest for monophasic (versus multiphasic) oral contraceptive users. Hormonal contraceptive use was associated with reduced risk of subthreshold PD. A potential mental health benefit of hormonal contraceptives has substantial public health implications; prospective longitudinal studies are needed to confirm whether hormonal contraceptive use improves mental health.Archives of Women s Mental Health 08/2014; 18(1). DOI:10.1007/s00737-014-0453-4 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Seasonality is one of the key features in subjects with mood disorders and is involved in the multi-faceted nature of the clinical course. However, few studies have explored the clinical implications of seasonality in bipolar disorders. We examined the differential effects of seasonality on clinical variables between bipolar I and II disorder (BD I and II). Seasonality was assessed using the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) in 204 subjects with BD I and 308 with BD II. Following the comparisons between BD I and II groups, clinical characteristics related to seasonality were explored. Next, to predict the presence of seasonality, a logistic regression model was applied. The global seasonality score on the SPAQ was significantly higher in the BD II group than in the BD I group. In the BD I group, seasonality was associated with suicide attempt history. In the BD II group, on the other hand, seasonality was associated with female gender, depressive predominance, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). In the regression models, the presence of PMDD and female gender was significantly associated with seasonality in the BD II group. Our findings suggest that high seasonality tendency, a vulnerability maker for cyclic worsening, may contribute to a differential pattern of clinical characteristics in BD II. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Psychiatry Research 12/2014; 225(3). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.11.051 · 2.68 Impact Factor