Brief Report: Television Viewing and Risk for Attention Problems in Preschool Children

Department of Psychology, Queens College, City University of New York, USA.
Journal of Pediatric Psychology (Impact Factor: 2.91). 06/2007; 32(4):448-52. DOI: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsl035
Source: PubMed


This study examined whether high levels of television viewing are associated with attention problems and hyperactivity in preschool children.
Parent and teacher ratings of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, objectively measured activity level, and parental estimation of early television exposure were collected for a sample of preschool children. Separate linear regression analyses were conducted with parent and teacher behavioral ratings and objectively assessed activity level as outcome variables.
Results indicated that after controlling for demographic factors (i.e., age, sex, and SES), television exposure accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in teacher ratings of inattentive/hyperactive behaviors, as well as objectively measured activity level.
These findings partially replicate those from a recent, highly publicized study indicating a correlation between television exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-associated behaviors. However, it remains unclear as to whether elevated levels of television viewing are the cause or result of ADHD symptoms.

Download full-text


Available from: Carlin Miller,
  • Source
    • "Regarding cognitive factors, these studies suggest that cultural differences between students' cognitive structures and game's characters and consequently the inability of students to adapt their cognitive structures to the games' content and characters leads to their lack of understanding of the game's concept. In this regard, some studies (Kronenberger et al., 2005; Miller et al., 2007), discuss the negative effects of exposure to the media, especially TV, on cognitive performance especially in children and adolescents. Kronenberger et al. (2005), for example, proposes that exposure to the media and computer games lead to violence and cognitive disorders. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examined the effect of computer games on increasing speed, attention and consistency of students in learning mathematics. The population of the study comprised of all first year male students of public schools of district one of Urmia City in the academic year of 2012-2013. Using multi-stage cluster sampling, at the result, one class was selected randomly to form the experimental group and other class as the control group. Toulouse – Pieron. (1986) attention test and a test of speed, endurance and mathematics achievement tests was used to assess research variables. The results indicated that computer games had a significant effect on increasing the speed and attention of the experimental group in mathematical calculations compared to the control group; however, the effect of computer games on math learning and stability of math learning was not significant. Results suggest that computer games can be used as training aid alongside teacher training.
    Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 02/2015; 176:419-424. DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.491
  • Source
    • "Given that concurrent exposure to high levels of television during preschool was associated with poorer executive functioning (Miller et al., 2007) and that the kind of content is critical (Schmidt et al., Early Television Exposure 27 2008), we predicted poorer cognitive outcomes would be associated with higher levels of exposure to adult-directed television at age 4. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study described the relations among the amount of child-directed versus adult-directed television exposure at ages 1 and 4 with cognitive outcomes at age 4. Sixty parents completed 24-hour television diaries when their children were 1 and 4 years of age. At age 4, their children also completed a series of cognitive measures and parents completed an assessment of their children's executive functioning skills. High levels of exposure to programs designed for adults during both infancy and at age 4, and high levels of household television use at age 4, were all associated with poorer executive functioning at age 4. High exposure to television programs designed for adults during the preschool years was also associated with poorer cognitive outcomes at age 4. In con-trast, exposure to television programs designed for young children at either time point was not associated with any outcome measure at age 4. These results suggest that exposure to child-directed versus adult-directed television content is an important factor in understanding the relation between media exposure and developmental outcomes.
    Merrill-Palmer quarterly 08/2010; 56(1):21-48. DOI:10.1353/mpq.0.0038
  • Source
    • "Negative associations endure even when demographic factors including socioeconomic status, ethnicity, maternal risk factors, and prematurity are controlled in the statistical models. In contrast, infants' television exposure was not associated with behavior problems during the preschool years in a sample of Danish children who were exposed to lower overall levels of television (Obel et al., 2004; but see Miller et al., 2007). Most recently, researchers compared infant exposure to child-directed and adult-directed programming and reported that exposure to adult-directed or violent programming during infancy was associated with parental reports of poorer executive functioning, but exposure to similar levels of child-directed programming was not (Barr, Lauricella, Zack & Calvert, 2010; Zimmerman & Christakis, 2007). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent research has indicated that there are long-term consequences of early media exposure. The present study examined the amount, content, and context of television exposure across the infancy period in the United States. Parents of 308 infants aged 6 to 18 months completed questionnaires detailing parental attitudes regarding their children's television use and 24-hour television diaries to provide an accurate measurement of household television usage. Television exposure during infancy varied as a function of infant age, sibling status, socioeconomic status and parental attitudes toward television. Regression analyses indicated that parental attitudes were not associated with the amount of television exposure, but were associated with the content of television exposure. These findings indicate that television exposure changes rapidly across infancy and is associated with parental attitudes.
    International Journal of Early Years Education 06/2010; 18(2):107-122. DOI:10.1080/09669760.2010.494431
Show more