Expression of endothelin 1 and its angiogenic role in meningiomas.
ABSTRACT Meningiomas are one of the most frequent central nervous system tumours. Although slow-growing at times, they continue to be a cause of morbidity and mortality. The endothelin (ET) family consists of three isoforms: ET-1 is the most abundant one. ET-1 may be involved in meningioma tumourigenesis in concert with other growth factors, in particular with angiogenic agents. We analysed ET-1 expression by immunohistochemistry and its activating system by reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction in 56 cases of meningioma. We found an association between high-grade meningiomas and high ET-1 expression levels (p=0.002). Moreover, we evaluated the potential angiogenic role of ET-1, finding an elevated microvessel count in tumours with high ET expression levels (p=0.004). ET-1 may contribute to meningioma growth by inducing formation of new blood vessels. The finding that ET-1 expression positively correlates with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in meningiomas (p=0.03) also supports the hypothesized modulating effect of ET-1 on angiogenesis. Thus, the influence of the ET system on the progression of meningiomas may occur through stimulation of VEGF. The association of ET-1 and meningioma represents a potential area for therapeutic intervention with selective ET inhibitors. Additional clinical studies will be needed before inhibitors can be incorporated in clinical practice.
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ABSTRACT: The endothelin (ET) system influences tumourigenesis and tumour progression by various mechanisms, including angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine whether the expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is related to the angiogenic phenomenon in lung cancer and whether it could be involved in its clinical behaviour. Expression of ET-1, endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) and endothelin-receptors ETA and ETB was examined in 201 non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and corresponding normal tissues using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Forty NSCLC were also analysed for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression by a competitive-PCR approach to assess whether ET-1 expression was related to this angiogenic factor. A higher number of cases with ET-1, ECE-1 and ETA mRNA expression was observed in malignant lung tumours compared with normal lung tissues (45.7% versus 33% for ET-1 (P < 0.0001); 38.3% versus 16.5% for ECE-1 (P = 0.004); and 42.8% versus 28.5% for ETA (P < 0.0001)). On the other hand, ETB mRNA was higher in normal lung tissues than in tumour samples (58.5% versus 52.8% (P < 0.0001)). Immunohistochemical analysis was also performed in 78 cases, selected from among those with high ET-1 mRNA, to confirm the presence of ET-1 protein and to determine its distribution and localisation. Moreover, an interesting relationship was observed between ET-1 and VEGF mRNA levels (P = 0.02). At univariate analysis, clinical-pathological parameters, such as sex, nodal metastatic involvement and stage, and ET-1 expression were seen to be significant predictors of worse prognosis regarding both overall survival (P = 0.001, P = 0.0003, P = 0.001 and P = 0.03, respectively) and disease-free interval (P = 0.0005, P = 0.0007, P = 0.001 and P = 0.04, respectively). We conclude that ET-1 could be involved in angiogenic phenomena in NSCLC and may represent a further indicator of progression and poor prognosis in this type of cancer, with interesting therapeutic implications.European Journal of Cancer 12/2005; 41(18):2828-35. · 5.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is overexpressed in breast carcinomas and stimulates tumor cell growth in an autocrine and paracrine fashion via its receptors, ET(A)R and ET(B)R. In this study, we evaluated the expression of ET-1 and ET receptors in breast carcinomas and determined its clinical and prognostic significance. We analyzed expression of ET-1, ET(A)R, and ET(B)R in 176 breast carcinomas using a semiquantitative immunohistochemical approach. Statistical analysis of clinicopathological variables such as pT stage, pN stage, hormone receptor status, Her-2/neu amplification, histological grade, and long-term follow-up data were performed. We observed a moderate to strong cytoplasmic staining for ET-1 in 69 (43.1%), for ET(A)R in 74 (46.5%), and for ET(B)R in 86 (53.4%) cases of primary breast cancer. A correlation was found between increased ET-1 expression and its receptors with several clinicopathological parameters that characterize aggressive types of breast cancer, with the exception of increased ET(A)R and ET(B)R expression with positive estrogen receptor status. Elevated expression of ET-1, ET(A)R, and ET(B)R was more common in breast carcinomas of patients with lower disease-free survival time and overall survival. In addition, a statistically significant correlation was observed between ET(A)R expression and reduced disease-free survival time (P = 0.041). Interestingly, the prognostic impact of ET(A)R expression was shown to be more pronounced in the subgroup of patients with a putative favorable prognosis according to classic prognostic factors. Therefore, analysis of ET(A)R expression may improve the prediction of relapse and death and facilitate an individually based risk-directed adjuvant therapy in breast cancer patients.Clinical Cancer Research 10/2003; 9(11):4125-31. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lung cancer, particularly small cell lung cancer (SCLC), is characterized by production of numerous peptides and their resulting clinical syndromes. Such peptides can act as autocrine growth factors for these tumors. In this study, we investigated the role of endothelin (ET)-1 in lung cancer. Using reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunocytochemistry, we screened a panel of lung cancer cell lines for ET-1, its receptors, and endothelin converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1), which generates the active form of ET-1. ET-1 messenger RNA was expressed in five of seven SCLC, four of four non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. The intracellular isoform of ECE-1, important in processing ET-1 if an autocrine growth loop is to function, was downregulated in the lung cancer cell lines as compared with expression of the extracellular isoform. Endothelin A receptor (ETAR), which mediates the mitogenic effects of ET-1 in prostate and ovarian cancer, was upregulated in HBE cells compared with expression in three of seven SCLC and two of four NSCLC cell lines. Endothelin B receptor (ETBR) was more widespread, being expressed in seven of seven SCLC, four of four NSCLC, and the HBE cells. We used flow cytometry to measure mobilization of intracellular calcium as a functional assay for the ETAR. These data concurred with the RT-PCR results, indicating that the ETAR was downregulated or was involved in an alternative signal transduction pathway in lung cancer, and no evidence of functional receptor mediating an autocrine growth loop was found. From our study, the data do not support the putative functional autocrine growth role of ET-1 in lung cancer. We propose instead that ET-1 may act as a paracrine growth factor for surrounding epithelial and endothelial cells via alternative pathways, promoting angiogenesis and stromal growth.American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 05/2000; 22(4):422-31. · 4.15 Impact Factor