Polypyrrole-based conducting polymers and interactions with biological tissues.

IRC in Biomedical Materials, Queen Mary University of London, London E14NS, UK.
Journal of The Royal Society Interface (Impact Factor: 4.91). 01/2007; 3(11):741-52. DOI: 10.1098/rsif.2006.0141
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Polypyrrole (PPy) is a conjugated polymer that displays particular electronic properties including conductivity. In biomedical applications, it is usually electrochemically generated with the incorporation of any anionic species including also negatively charged biological macromolecules such as proteins and polysaccharides to give composite materials. In biomedical research, it has mainly been assessed for its role as a reporting interface in biosensors. However, there is an increasing literature on the application of PPy as a potentially electrically addressable tissue/cell support substrate. Here, we review studies that have considered such PPy based conducting polymers in direct contact with biological tissues and conclude that due to its versatile functional properties, it could contribute to a new generation of biomaterials.

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    ABSTRACT: Conjugated polymer actuators have potential use in implantable neural interface devices for modulating the position of electrode sites within brain tissue or guiding insertion of neural probes along curved trajectories. The actuation of polypyrrole (PPy) doped with dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS) is characterized to ascertain whether it can be employed in the cerebral environment. Microfabricated bilayer beams are electrochemically cycled at either 22 or 37 °C in aqueous NaDBS or in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF). Nearly all the ions in aCSF are exchanged into the PPy-the cations Na(+) , K(+) , Mg(2+) , Ca(2+) , as well as the anion PO4 (3-) ; Cl(-) is not present. Nevertheless, deflections in aCSF are comparable to those in NaDBS and they are monotonic with oxidation level: strain increases upon reduction, with no reversal of motion despite the mixture of ionic charges and valences being exchanged. Actuation depends on temperature. Upon warming, the cyclic voltammograms show additional peaks and an increase of 70% in the consumed charge. Bending is, however, much less affected: strain increases somewhat (6%-13%) but remains monotonic, and deflections shift (up to 20%). These results show how the actuation environment must be taken into account, and demonstrate proof of concept for actuated implantable neural interfaces.
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    Acta biomaterialia 01/2014; · 5.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Conjugated polymers due to their reversible transition between the redox states are potentially able to immobilise and release ionic species. In this study, we have successfully developed a conducting polymer system based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) for electrically triggered, local delivery of an ionic form of ibuprofen (IBU), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, and analgesic drug. It was shown that by changing the electropolymerisation conditions, the polymer matrix of specified IBU content can be synthesised. The electrochemical synthesis has been optimised to obtain the conducting matrix with the highest possible drug content. The process of electrically stimulated drug release has been extensively studied in terms of the dynamics of the controlled IBU release under varying conditions. The maximum concentration of the released IBU, 0.66 (±0.10) mM, was observed at the applied potential E = −0.5 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). It was demonstrated that the immobilisation-release procedure can be repeated several times making the PEDOT matrix promising materials for controlled drug release systems applied e.g. in neuroprosthetics.
    Journal of Materials Science 08/2014; 49(16). · 2.16 Impact Factor

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