Doppler echocardiograph evaluation of pulmonary hypertension in patients undergoing hemodialysis.
ABSTRACT Pulmonary hypertension (PH) has been reported in hemodialysis (HD) patients, but data regarding its incidence and mechanisms are scarce. The aims of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of unexplained PH in long-term HD patients, and to examine some possible etiologic factors for its occurrence. The prevalence of PH was estimated by Doppler echocardiography in a cohort of 86 stable patients on HD via arteriovenous access for more than 12 months. All the patients underwent full clinical evaluation, chest radiography, and a standard 12-lead echocardiograph. Laboratory investigation included a mean of 12 months (serum calcium, phosphorus, parathormone (PTH), alkaline phosphatase, lipids, and hemoglobin). Pulmonary hypertension was defined as pulmonary artery systolic pressure >35 mmHg as determined by Doppler echocardiography using the modified Bernoulli equation. Pulmonary hypertension was detected in 23 patients (26.74%). Of those with PH, left ventricular hypertrophy was seen in 13 patients (56.52%), and valvular calcifications in 6 patients (26.08%). There were no significant differences between both groups with regard to age, sex, duration of dialysis, shunt location, and all the biological parameters of the study. The presence of PH was not related to the level of PTH, or the severity of other metabolic abnormalities. This study demonstrates a high prevalence of PH among patients with ESRD receiving long-term HD via surgical arteriovenous access. The role of the vascular access, anemia, or secondary hyperparathyroidism as the etiology of PH in HD patients did not hold in this study.
Article: Pulmonary Hypertension in CKD.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a rare disease often associated with positive antinuclear antibody and high mortality. Pulmonary hypertension, which rarely is severe, occurs frequently in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension ranges from 9%-39% in individuals with stage 5 CKD, 18.8%-68.8% in hemodialysis patients, and 0%-42% in patients on peritoneal dialysis therapy. No epidemiologic data are available yet for earlier stages of CKD. Pulmonary hypertension in patients with CKD may be induced and/or aggravated by left ventricular disorders and risk factors typical of CKD, including volume overload, an arteriovenous fistula, sleep-disordered breathing, exposure to dialysis membranes, endothelial dysfunction, vascular calcification and stiffening, and severe anemia. No specific intervention trial aimed at reducing pulmonary hypertension in patients with CKD has been performed to date. Correcting volume overload and treating left ventricular disorders are factors of paramount importance for relieving pulmonary hypertension in patients with CKD. Preventing pulmonary hypertension in this population is crucial because even kidney transplantation may not reverse the high mortality associated with established pulmonary hypertension.American Journal of Kidney Diseases 11/2012; · 5.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is present in a significant proportion of patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) and is of prognostic importance. Data on the effect of renal transplant on PH is very limited. In this study, the aim was to examine the effect of renal transplant on systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) determined by Doppler echocardiography. Analysis was performed on the records of 500 consecutive patients who underwent renal transplant at our center between the years 1999 to 2008. The prevalence of PH in the preoperative assessment period was established. Patients were diagnosed as having PH when measured SPAP values were > 35 mm Hg. Pulmonary hypertension was detected in 85 of the 500 (17%) patients under pre-transplant evaluation. At post-transplant follow up Doppler echocardiographic examination was performed on 50 of the 85 patients. After exclusion of 8 cases (1 due to massive pulmonary thromboemboli; 7 due to graft failure requiring dialysis therapy) analyses were performed on 42 patients who had undergone both pre- and post-transplant echocardiographic examination. Mean SPAP at pre-transplant evaluation was 45.9 ± 8.8 mm Hg and in 6 (14.3%) cases SPAP was above 50 mm Hg.Compared to pre-transplant values, a significant decrease was observed in mean SPAP values in an average of 53 months of postoperative follow up (41.8 ± 7.4 mm Hg vs. 45.9 ± 8.8 mm Hg, p < 0.0001). These findings indicate that patients with ESRD accompanied by PH may benefit from renal transplant. Further research is required for more concrete conclusions to be drawn on this subject.Multidisciplinary respiratory medicine. 01/2011; 6(3):155-60.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction. Pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is an independent predictor of mortality. The aim of this study was to relate pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) to the cardiovascular status of dialysis patients. Methods. 27 peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 29 haemodialysis (HD) patients (60 ± 13 years, 37 males, dialysis vintage was 40 ± 48 months) had PAP measured by echocardiography. Clinical and laboratory data of the patients were recorded. Results. PHT (PAP > 35 mmHg) was detected in 22 patients (39%; PAP 42 ± 6 mmHg) and was diagnosed in 18.5% of PD patients and 58.6% of HD patients (P = .0021). The group of subjects with PH had higher dialysis vintage (63 ± 60 versus 27 ± 32 months, P = .016), interdialytic weight gain (2.1 ± 1 versus 1.3 ± 0.9 Kg, P = .016), lower diastolic blood pressure (73 ± 12 versus 80 ± 8 mmHg, P = .01) and ejection fraction (54 ± 13 versus 60 ± 7%, P = .021) than the patients with normal PAP. PAP was correlated positively with diastolic left ventricular volume (r = 0.32, P = .013) and negatively with ejection fraction (r = -0.54, P < .0001). PHT was independently associated with dialysis vintage (OR 1.022, 95% CI 1.002-1.041, P = .029) and diastolic blood pressure (OR 0.861, 95% CI 0.766-0.967, P = .011). Conclusions. PHT is frequent in dialysis patients, it appears to be a late complication of HD treatment, mainly related to cardiac performance and cardiovascular disease history.International journal of nephrology. 01/2011; 2011:283475.