Rogers RD, Ramnani N, Mackay C, Wilson JL, Jezzard P, Carter CS et al. Distinct portions of anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex are activated by reward processing in separable phases of decision-making cognition. Biol Psychiatry 55: 594-602

University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom.
Biological Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 10.26). 04/2004; 55(6):594-602. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2003.11.012
Source: PubMed


Choosing between actions associated with uncertain rewards and punishments is mediated by neural circuitry encompassing the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and striatum; however, the precise conditions under which these different components are activated during decision-making cognition remain uncertain.
Fourteen healthy volunteers completed an event-based functional magnetic resonance imaging protocol to investigate blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) responses during independently modeled phases of choice cognition. In the "decision phase," participants decided which of two simultaneous visually presented gambles they wished to play for monetary reward. The gambles differed in their magnitude of gains, magnitude of losses, and the probabilities with which these outcomes were delivered. In the "outcome phase," the result of each choice was indicated on the visual display.
In the decision phase, choices involving large gains were associated with increased BOLD responses in the pregenual ACC, paracingulate, and right posterior orbitolateral cortex compared with choices involving small gains. In the outcome phase, good outcomes were associated with increased BOLD responses in the posterior orbitomedial cortex, subcallosal ACC, and ventral striatum compared with negative outcomes. There was only limited overlap between reward-related activity in ACC and orbitofrontal cortex during the decision and outcome phases.
Neural activity within the medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex, pregenual ACC, and striatum mediate distinct representations of reward-related information that are deployed at different stages during a decision-making episode.

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    • "FRN, then, may indicate activity in the ventral striatum, caudate, amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, and orbitalfrontal cortex in response to rewards compared to nonrewards (see also Foti, Weinberg, Dien, & Hajcak, 2011; but see Cohen, Cavanaugh, & Slagter, 2011). Functional MRI data indicating that the medial prefrontal cortex may be more active in response to gain relative to losses (Fujiwara, Tobler, Taira, Iijima, & Tsutsui, 2009; Rogers et al., 2004) and to pleasant versus unpleasant images (Sabatinelli, Bradley, Lang, Costa, & Versace , 2007) appears to support Carlson and colleagues' contention. "
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    Journal of Experimental Psychology General 12/2014; 143(3):1004-1010. DOI:10.1037/a0035179 · 5.50 Impact Factor
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    • "Particularly relevant to our study, the dorsal and anterior regions of the mPFC appear to mediate the relationship between personal emotional experience with current environmental context under cognitive demand (Phan et al., 2004) and to encode abstract reinforcement during reward processing (O'Reilly, 2010). Specifically, during decision making, increased activation of the pregenual anterior cingulate and the dorsal mPFC represents reward magnitude with the goal to maximize reinforcement (Rogers et al., 2004). Further, a recent comprehensive study of lesion-symptom mapping found that value-based decision making was associated with both the ventral medial and dorsal anterior PFC regions (Glascher et al., 2012), which overlap with the mPFC region that this study found to be correlated with accumbens DA release. "
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    Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 09/2014; 223(3). DOI:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2014.05.015 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    • "The significantly higher BOLD signal during the acceptance of overcompensated compared to fair offers (Fig. 4C) showed the involvement of this brain network towards the acceptance of overcompensating offers. The involvement the caudate-cingulate– thalamus network might be either in the selection of action associated with higher value outcomes (Hikosaka et al., 2006; Kim et al., 2009; Rogers et al., 2004; Samejima et al., 2005) or in the processing of rewards (Bush et al., 2002; Delgado et al., 2003, 2004; Hikosaka et al., 2006; Knutson et al., 2001; Martin-Soelch et al., 2003; Williams et al., 2004), and does not support previous thinking that inequity aversion is symmetric in humans (Camerer et al., 2005; Fehr and Camerer, 2007; Fehr and Gachter, 2002; Guth et al., 1982). "
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    Brain Connectivity 08/2014; 4(8):619-630. DOI:10.1089/brain.2014.0243
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