Onoue T, Uchida D, Begum NM, Tomizuka Y, Yoshida H, Sato MEpithelial-mesenchymal transition induced by the stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXCR4 system in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Int J Oncol 29: 1133-1138
ABSTRACT Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) refers to critical events occasionally observed during tumor progression, including invasion and metastasis, by which cancer cells acquire a fibroblast-like phenotype. Since the stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXCR4 system can facilitate lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), we have explored the possibility that this system might be involved in EMT. Oral SCC cells, B88 and HNt, which have functional CXCR4 and lymph node metastatic potential, were found to lose their epithelial cell morphology due to SDF-1. In this context, the downregulation of epithelial markers, cytokeratin, E-cadherin and beta-catenin, and the upregulation of mesenchymal marker, vimentin and snail were detected. Furthermore, upregulation of vimentin by treatment with SDF-1 was impaired by phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor Wortmannin, but not by mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor U0126. In the type I collagen embedding culture, SDF-1-treated B88 cells formed protruding extensions, but the effect was impaired by treatment with Wortmannin. These results suggested that EMT induced by the SDF-1/CXCR4 system might be involved in the lymph node metastasis of oral SCCs via activation of PI3K-Akt/PKB pathway.
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- "However, noticeably, interfering with CCL5 signaling did not completely inhibit rhBMP-2-induced cell invasion, implicating the involvement of other pathways. For instance, CXCL9 , CXCL12 , PDGF-BB , and VEGF , all of which are well-known factors associated with cancer cell invasion, were also detected by the cytokine antibody array in this study. Future studies will be necessary to determine whether combined blockage of these proteins will provide protection against BMP-2-induced oral cancer progression. "
ABSTRACT: Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-containing bone grafts are useful regenerative materials for oral and maxillofacial surgery; however, several in vitro and in vivo studies previously reported cancer progression-related adverse effects caused by BMP-2. In this study, by quantifying the rhBMP-2 content released from bone grafts, the rhBMP-2 concentration that did not show cytotoxicity in each cell line was determined and applied to the in vitro monoculture or coculture model in the invasion assay. Our results showed that 1 ng/ml rhBMP-2, while not affecting cancer cell viability, significantly increased the invasion ability of the cancer cells cocultured with fibroblasts. Cocultured medium with rhBMP-2 also contained increased levels of matrix metalloproteinases. rhBMP-2-treated cocultured fibroblasts did not show a prominent difference in mRNA expression profile. Some cytokines, however, were detected in the conditioned medium by a human cytokine antibody array. Among them, the cancer invasion-related factor CCL5 was quantified by ELISA. Interestingly, CCL5 neutralizing antibodies significantly reduced the invasion of oral cancer cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that 1 ng/ml rhBMP-2 may induce invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells by CCL5 release in coculture models. Therefore, we propose that a careful clinical examination before the use of rhBMP-2-containing biomaterials is indispensable for using rhBMP-2 treatment to prevent cancer progression.PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e108170. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0108170 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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- "In addition to MMP stimulation, CXCR4 and CXCL12 interaction induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HNSCC cells. It appears that the crosstalk between CXCL12 and its receptor might be involved in the lymph node metastasis of HNSCC cells 173.In addition to CXCL12, it was reported that HNSCC derived from a lymph node metastasis, but not from a synchronous primary tumor, secreted CXCL5 174. Furthermore, CXCL5 also stimulated cell proliferation and the in vitro invasion of metastatic HNSCC cells. "
ABSTRACT: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a complex tissue that contains tumor cells and the surrounding stroma, which is populated by different types of mesenchymal cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Collectively, they are referred to as the tumor microenvironment (TME). Recent studies have shown that TME has a more profound influence on the growth and metastasis of HNSCC than was previously appreciated. Because carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are frequently observed in the stroma of the tumor, this review focuses on the potential role of tumor-CAFs interactions in progression of HNSCC. Tumor-CAFs crosstalk enhances the production of growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and inflammatory mediators, which eventually facilitates tumor growth. In fact, factors and cells that do not support tumor growth are usually down regulated or mitigated in TME. Therefore TME may determine the fate of the tumors at the site of invasion and metastasis. For tumor cells that survive at these sites, stromal activation may serve to establish a supportive tumor stroma, fostering the outgrowth of the metastatic cells. The concept of tumor-stromal interactions and microenvironmental niche has profound consequences in tumor growth and metastasis and therefore, it's understanding will open up new strategies for the diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of HNSCC.Journal of Cancer 01/2013; 4(1):66-83. DOI:10.7150/jca.5112 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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- "This process coincided with upregulated CXCR4 expression and also sensitization of these cells to respond to SDF-1, which mediated migration . Similar results were observed in oral squamous cell carcinoma [26,49]. However, the reason cancer cells that have undergone EMT have a higher expression of CXCR4 is far from clear. "
ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC), which frequently metastasizes to the liver, is one of the three leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Growing evidence suggests that a subset of cells exists among cancer stem cells. This distinct subpopulation is thought to contribute to liver metastasis; however, it has not been fully explored in CRC yet. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to detect distinct subsets with CD133 and CXCR4 markers in human primary and metastatic CRC tissues. The 'stemness' and metastatic capacities of different subpopulations derived from the colon cancer cell line HCT116 were compared in vitro and in vivo. The roles of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stromal-cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in the metastatic process were also investigated. A survival curve was used to explore the correlation between the content of CD133(+)CXCR4(+) cancer cells and patient survival. In human specimens, the content of CD133(+)CXCR4(+) cells was higher in liver metastases than in primary colorectal tumors. Clonogenic and tumorigenic cells were restricted to CD133(+) cells in the HCT116 cell line, with CXCR4 expression having no impact on the 'stemness' properties. We found that CD133(+)CXCR4(+)cancer cells had a high metastatic capacity in vitro and in vivo. Compared with CD133(+)CXCR4(-) cells, CD133(+)CXCR4(+)cancer cells experienced EMT, which contributed partly to their metastatic phenotype. We then determined that SDF-1/CXCL12 treatment could further induce EMT in CD133(+)CXCR4(+)cancer cells and enhance their invasive behavior, while this could not be observed in CD133(+)CXCR4- cancer cells. Blocking SDF-1/CXCR4 interaction with a CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100 (1,10-[1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)]bis-1,4,8,11 -tetraazacyclotetradecane octahydrochloride), inhibited metastatic tumor growth in a mouse hepatic metastasis model. Finally, a high percentage of CD133(+)CXCR4(+)cells in human primary CRC was associated with a reduced two-year survival rate. Strategies targeting the SDF-1/CXCR4 interaction may have important clinical applications in the suppression of colon cancer metastasis. Further investigations on how high expression of CXCR4 and EMT occur in this identified cancer stem cell subset are warranted to provide insights into our understanding of tumor biology.BMC Medicine 08/2012; 10(1):85. DOI:10.1186/1741-7015-10-85 · 7.28 Impact Factor