Epithelial-mesenchymal transition induced by the stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXCR4 system in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.
ABSTRACT Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) refers to critical events occasionally observed during tumor progression, including invasion and metastasis, by which cancer cells acquire a fibroblast-like phenotype. Since the stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXCR4 system can facilitate lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), we have explored the possibility that this system might be involved in EMT. Oral SCC cells, B88 and HNt, which have functional CXCR4 and lymph node metastatic potential, were found to lose their epithelial cell morphology due to SDF-1. In this context, the downregulation of epithelial markers, cytokeratin, E-cadherin and beta-catenin, and the upregulation of mesenchymal marker, vimentin and snail were detected. Furthermore, upregulation of vimentin by treatment with SDF-1 was impaired by phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor Wortmannin, but not by mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor U0126. In the type I collagen embedding culture, SDF-1-treated B88 cells formed protruding extensions, but the effect was impaired by treatment with Wortmannin. These results suggested that EMT induced by the SDF-1/CXCR4 system might be involved in the lymph node metastasis of oral SCCs via activation of PI3K-Akt/PKB pathway.
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ABSTRACT: Background Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC) is the second most frequent primary malignant liver tumor following hepatocellular carcinoma. It is a highly fatal disease and has few therapeutics. The CXC chemokine ligand-12 (CXCL12)/CXC chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) axis has been shown to be involved in tumorgenesis, proliferation, and angiogenesis in a variety of cancers including IHCC. However, its prognostic significance in IHCC is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the functional role of CXCR4 in the progression and metastasis of IHCC and explore the underlying mechanism.Methods The CXCR4 expression, overall survival, and the clinical characteristics including age, sex, differentiation degree, tumor size, vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, TNM stage, and T stage were analyzed for 122 IHCC patients. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against CXCR4 was used to disrupt the CXCL12/CXCR4 signal transduction pathways in IHCC cell lines. In vitro assays, including CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry, and colony formation assay, and in vivo tumor formation assay were utilized to detect the cell phenotype of CXCR4 knockdown cells. Transwell and wound healing assays were used to examine the IHCC cell invasion and migration ability. The Wnt pathway was assessed by Western blot and ß-Catenin/Tcf transcription reporter assay.ResultsWe demonstrated that CXCR4 expression was closely correlated with IHCC progression and metastasis characteristics. The overall survival of patients with high CXCR4 expression was significantly lower than that of patients with low CXCR4 expression. Furthermore, we showed that the abrogation of CXCR4 had significantly negative influence on the IHCC cell phenotype, including in vitro cell proliferation, cell cycle, colony formation, cell invasion, and in vivo tumorigenicity. In addition, CXCR4 knockdown downregulated Wnt target genes and mesenchymal markers such as Vimentin and Slug.Conclusions In conclusion, our result shows that high CXCR4 expression is associated with IHCC progression and metastasis via the canonical Wnt pathway, suggesting that CXCR4 may serve as a promising therapeutic target for IHCC.Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 12/2014; 33(1):103. · 3.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-containing bone grafts are useful regenerative materials for oral and maxillofacial surgery; however, several in vitro and in vivo studies previously reported cancer progression-related adverse effects caused by BMP-2. In this study, by quantifying the rhBMP-2 content released from bone grafts, the rhBMP-2 concentration that did not show cytotoxicity in each cell line was determined and applied to the in vitro monoculture or coculture model in the invasion assay. Our results showed that 1 ng/ml rhBMP-2, while not affecting cancer cell viability, significantly increased the invasion ability of the cancer cells cocultured with fibroblasts. Cocultured medium with rhBMP-2 also contained increased levels of matrix metalloproteinases. rhBMP-2-treated cocultured fibroblasts did not show a prominent difference in mRNA expression profile. Some cytokines, however, were detected in the conditioned medium by a human cytokine antibody array. Among them, the cancer invasion-related factor CCL5 was quantified by ELISA. Interestingly, CCL5 neutralizing antibodies significantly reduced the invasion of oral cancer cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that 1 ng/ml rhBMP-2 may induce invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells by CCL5 release in coculture models. Therefore, we propose that a careful clinical examination before the use of rhBMP-2-containing biomaterials is indispensable for using rhBMP-2 treatment to prevent cancer progression.PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e108170. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The chemokine receptor CCR7 and its ligands CCL19/21 mediate the tumor mobility, invasion, and metastasis (Wu et al. Curr Pharm Des. 15:742-57, 2009). Hypoxia induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to facilitate the tumor biology. Here, we addressed the roles of CCR7 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and hypoxia-induced serous papillary cystic adenocarcinoma (SKOV-3) EMT. The expression level of CCR7 protein was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 30 specimens of epithelial ovarian carcinomas. Western blot was used to investigate the expression of hypoxia-induced CCR7, HIF-1α, and EMT markers (N-cadherin, Snail, MMP-9). In addition, wound healing and Transwell assay were introduced to observe the capacity of migration and invasiveness. Our data showed CCR7 expression was observed in 22 cases of tissues and closely associated with lymph node metastasis and FIGO stage (III + IV). At 6, 12, 24, and 36 h following hypoxia, CCR7 and HIF-1α proteins were both obviously upregulated in a time-dependent method, compared with normal oxygen. In vitro, SKOV-3 expressed N-cadherin, Snail, and MMP-9 once either CCL21 stimulation or hypoxia induction, while hypoxia accompanied with CCL21 induction exhibited strongest upregulation of N-cadherin, Snail, and MMP-9 proteins. Besides, wound healing and Transwell assay further identified that hypoxia with CCL21 stimulation can remarkably promote cell migration and invasiveness. Taken together, CCR7 can constitutively express in epithelial ovarian carcinomas and be induced rapidly in response to hypoxia, which indeed participates in EMT development and prompts the cell migration and invasion. Thus, this study suggested that the epithelial ovarian cancer invasion and metastasis can be inhibited by antagonizing CCR7.Tumor Biology 08/2014; · 2.84 Impact Factor