Toll-like receptor (TLR) response tolerance: a key physiological "damage limitation" effect and an important potential opportunity for therapy.
ABSTRACT Endotoxin tolerance is a well known phenomenon, described both in vivo and in vitro, in which repeated exposure to endotoxin results in a diminished response, usually characterised as a reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokine release. The mechanisms responsible for endotoxin tolerance have become clear in recent years as our understanding of the pathways through which endotoxin mediates its effects has increased. The principal cell surface receptor for the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) component of endotoxin is Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR-4), a member of a highly conserved family of receptors specific for highly conserved bacterial and viral components which play key roles in the early inflammatory response to pathogens. As our understanding of the part played by TLR-4 signalling in endotoxin has increased, so it has become clear that response tolerance occurs to other TLR ligands in addition to LPS/endotoxin. Clinically, endotoxin/TLR response tolerance is thought to play an important part in susceptibility to reinfection in patients treated for severe sepsis. Whilst this may have developed as a protective evolutionary mechanism to prevent death caused by overwhelming cytokine release in sepsis, in the modern era of antibiotics, vasopressors and organ support, undoing this downregulation or "re-booting" the immune system may be a useful therapeutic target in the post-septic patient. This should, however, be approached with caution as it is possible that endotoxin/TLR response tolerance is also a physiological regulatory mechanism in areas normally exposed to bacterial-derived TLR-ligands such as the gut and liver.
Article: The Role of the Liver in Sepsis.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Despite the progress made in the clinical management of sepsis, sepsis morbidity and mortality rates remain high. The inflammatory pathogenesis and organ injury leading to death from sepsis are not fully understood for vital organs, especially the liver. Only recently has the role of the liver in sepsis begun to be revealed. Pre-existing liver dysfunction is a risk factor for the progression of infection to sepsis. Liver dysfunction after sepsis is an independent risk factor for multiple organ dysfunction and sepsis-induced death. The liver works as a lymphoid organ in response to sepsis. Acting as a double-edged sword in sepsis, the liver-mediated immune response is responsible for clearing bacteria and toxins but also causes inflammation, immunosuppression, and organ damage. Attenuating liver injury and restoring liver function lowers morbidity and mortality rates in patients with sepsis. This review summarizes the central role of liver in the host immune response to sepsis and in clinical outcomes.International Reviews Of Immunology 03/2014; · 5.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies indicate that endotoxin preconditioning may decrease the inflammatory response and alleviate intestinal mucosal damage caused by sepsis. However, it is not known whether preconditioning with endotoxin might protect the intestinal mucosa after hemorrhagic shock. In this study, we investigated the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning on the intestinal mucosa following hemorrhagic shock in a rat model. Given that intestinal toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling is exaggerated in response to LPS, we further investigated the role of TLR4 signaling in endotoxin tolerance.Inflammation Research 05/2014; · 2.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Agents inhibiting microglial activation are attracting attention as candidate drugs for neuroprotection in neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, researchers have focused on the immunosuppression induced by rifampicin. Our previous study showed that rifampicin inhibits the production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro‑inflammatory mediators and improves neuron survival in inflammation; however, the mechanism through which rifampicin inhibits microglial inflammation and its neuroprotective effects are not completely understood. In this study, we examined the effects of rifampicin on morphological changes induced by LPS in murine microglial BV2 cells. Then we investigated, in BV2 microglia, the effects of rifampicin on two signaling pathway componentss stimulated by LPS, the Toll‑like receptor-4 (TLR-4) and the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In addition, we co-cultured BV2 microglia and neurons to observe the indirect neuroprotective effects of rifampicin. Rifampicin inhibited LPS-stimulated expression of the TLR-4 gene. When neurons were co-cultured with LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia, pre-treatment with rifampicin increased neuronal viability and reduced the number of apoptotic cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that rifampicin, with its anti-inflammatory properties, may be a promising agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.Molecular Medicine Reports 08/2014; · 1.48 Impact Factor