Cytochrome P450 and Parkinson's disease: protective role of neuronal CYP 2E1 from MPTP toxicity.
ABSTRACT Elucidation of the biochemical steps leading to the 1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced degeneration of the nigro-striatal dopamine (DA) pathway has provided new clues to the pathophysiology of Parkinson's Disease (PD). In line with the enhancement of MPTP toxicity by diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), here we demonstrate how other CYP450 (2E1) inhibitors, such as diallyl sulfide (DAS) or phenylethylisothiocyanate (PIC), also potentiate the selective DA neuron degeneration in C57/bl mice. In order to provide direct evidence for this isozyme involvement, CYP 2E1 knockout mice were challenged with MPTP or the combined treatment. Here we show that these transgenic mice have a low sensitivity to MPTP alone, similarly to the wild type SVI, suggesting that it is likely that transgenic mice compensate for the missing enzyme. However, in these CYP 2E1 knockout mice, DDC pretreatment completely fails to enhance MPTP toxicity; this enhancement is instead regularly present in the SVI control animals. This study indicates that the occurrence of CYP 2E1 in C57/bl mouse brain is relevant for MPTP toxicity, and suggests that this isozyme may have a detoxificant role related to the efflux transporter of the toxin.
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ABSTRACT: Epidemiological data suggest that the male gender is one of the risks factors for the development of Parkinson Disease (PD). Also, differences in the clinical manifestation and the course of PD have been observed between males and females. However, little is known about the molecular aspects underlying gender-specificity in PD. To address this issue, we determined the gene expression profiles of male and female dopamine (DA) neurons in sporadic PD. We analyzed Affymetrix-based microarrays on laser microdissected DA neurons from postmortem brains of sporadic PD patients and age-matched controls across genders. Pathway enrichment demonstrated that major cellular pathways involved in PD pathogenesis showed different patterns of deregulation between males and females with more prominent downregulation of genes related to oxidative phosphorylation, apoptosis, synaptic transmission and transmission of nerve impulse in the male population. In addition, we found upregulation of gene products for metabolic processes and mitochondrial energy consumption in the age-matched male control neurons. On the single cell level, selected data validation using quantitative Real-Time (qRT)-PCR was consistent with microarray raw data and supported some of the observations from data analysis. On the molecular level, our results provide evidence that the expression profiles of aged normal and PD midbrain DA neurons are gender-specific. The observed differences in the expression profiles suggest a disease bias of the male gender, which could be in concordance with clinical observations that the male gender represents a risk factor for sporadic PD. Validation of gene expression by qRT-PCR supported the microarray results, but also pointed to several caveats involved in data interpretation.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(1):e8856. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), which inter alia is located in dopamine containing neurons in the substantia nigra, has been hypothesized to be of importance for the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), either by its production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or by its capability to detoxify putative neurotoxins. Numerous polymorphisms in the coding and non-coding regions of the gene for this enzyme have been reported. Different variants may account for inter-individual differences in the activity of the enzyme or production of ROS. In this study, the CYP2E1 gene was examined in a control population (n = 272) and a population with PD (n = 347), using a tag-single nucleotide polymorphism (tSNP) approach founded on HapMap Data. Six tSNPs were used in the analysis and haplotype block data were obtained. In case of significance, the SNP was further examined regarding early/late age of disease onset and presence of relatives with PD. We found an association between allele and genotype frequencies of the C/G polymorphism at intron 7 (rs2070676) of this gene and PD (P value of 0.026 and 0.027, respectively). Furthermore, analysis of the rs2070676 polymorphism in subgroups of patients with age of disease onset higher than 50 years and those not having a relative with PD also demonstrated a significant difference with controls. This was seen in both genotype (corresponding to P value = 0.039 and 0.032) and allele (P = 0.027 and 0.017 respectively) frequency. As a representative of many polymorphisms or in possible linkage disequilibrium with other functional variants, it is possible that rs2070676 could influence the regulation of the enzyme. In conclusion, our results display an association between the rs2070676 polymorphism and PD. Additional investigations are needed to elucidate the importance of this polymorphism for the activity of CYP2E1 and PD susceptibility.Journal of Neural Transmission 05/2009; 116(5):567-73. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neurotoxins represent unique chemical tools, providing a means to 1) gain insight into cellular mechanisms of apopotosis and necrosis, 2) achieve a morphological template for studies otherwise unattainable, 3) specifically produce a singular phenotype of denervation, and 4) provide the starting point to delve into processes and mechanisms of nerve regeneration and sprouting. There are many other notable uses of neurotoxins in neuroscience research, and ever more being discovered each year. The objective of this review paper is to highlight the broad areas of neuroscience in which neurotoxins and neurotoxicity mechanism come into play. This shifts the focus away from neurotoxins per se, and onto the major problems under study today. Neurotoxins broadly defined are used to explore neurodegenerative disorders, psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders. Neurotoxic mechanisms relating to protein aggregates are indigenous to Alzheimer disease, Parkinson's disease. NeuroAIDS is a disorder in which microglia and macrophages have enormous import. The gap between the immune system and nervous system has been bridged, as neuroinflammation is now considered to be part of the neurodegenerative process. Related mechanisms now arise in the process of neurogenesis. Accordingly, the entire spectrum of neuroscience is within the purview of neurotoxins and neurotoxicity mechanisms. Highlights on discoveries in the areas noted, and on selective neurotoxins, are included, mainly from the past 2 to 3 years.Neurotoxicity Research 01/2007; 10(3-4):263-87. · 2.87 Impact Factor