Role of cytokines in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
ABSTRACT Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most frequent cancers and standard treatment has only marginally improved the 5-year survival rate of patients with this disease in the last few decades. It is supposed that cytokine alterations in immune, inflammatory and angiogenetic regulatory routes within the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma microenvironment play a critical role in tumor aggressiveness, its response to chemo- and radiation therapies, as well as the development of immune escape mechanisms.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the most common human cancers worldwide. In SCC, tumour development is accompanied by an immune response that leads to massive tumour infiltration by inflammatory cells, and consequently, local and systemic production of cytokines, chemokines and other mediators. Studies in both humans and animal models indicate that imbalances in these inflammatory mediators are associated with cancer development. METHODS: We used a multistage model of SCC to examine the involvement of elastase (ELA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, TGF-beta and TNF-alpha), and neutrophils and macrophages in tumour development. ELA and MPO activity and NO, IL-10, IL -17, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta levels were increased in the precancerous microenvironment. RESULTS: ELA and MPO activity and NO, IL-10, IL -17, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta levels were increased in the precancerous microenvironment. Significantly higher levels of IL-6 and lower levels of IL-10 were detected at 4 weeks following 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) treatment. Similar levels of IL-13 were detected in the precancerous microenvironment compared with control tissue. We identified significant increases in the number of GR-1+ neutrophils and F4/80+/GR-1- infiltrating cells in tissues at 4 and 8 weeks following treatment and a higher percentage of tumour-associated macrophages (TAM) expressing both GR-1 and F4/80, an activated phenotype, at 16 weeks. We found a significant correlation between levels of IL-10, IL-17, ELA, and activated TAMs and the lesions. Additionally, neutrophil infiltrate was positively correlated with MPO and NO levels in the lesions. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate an imbalance of inflammatory mediators in precancerous SCC caused by neutrophils and macrophages and culminating in pro-tumour local tissue alterations.Journal of Inflammation 11/2012; 9(1):46. · 2.26 Impact Factor
Article: Tristetraprolin regulates interleukin-6, which is correlated with tumor progression in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tumor-derived cytokines play a significant role in the progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Targeting proteins, such as tristetraprolin (TTP), that regulate multiple inflammatory cytokines may inhibit the progression of HNSCC. However, TTP's role in cancer is poorly understood. The goal of the current study was to determine whether TTP regulates inflammatory cytokines in patients with HNSCC. TTP messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression were determined by quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis, respectively. mRNA stability and cytokine secretion were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay, respectively, after overexpression or knockdown of TTP in HNSCC. HNSCC tissue microarrays were immunostained for interleukin-6 (IL-6) and TTP. TTP expression in HNSCC cell lines was found to be inversely correlated with the secretion of IL-6, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2) )(.) Knockdown of TTP increased mRNA stability and the secretion of cytokines. Conversely, overexpression of TTP in HNSCC cells led to decreased secretion of IL-6, VEGF, and PGE(2) . Immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays for IL-6 demonstrated that staining intensity is prognostic for poor disease-specific survival (P = .023), tumor recurrence and development of second primary tumors (P = .014), and poor overall survival (P = .019). The results of the current study demonstrated that down-regulation of TTP in HNSCC enhances mRNA stability and promotes secretion of IL-6, VEGF, and PGE(2) . Furthermore, high IL-6 secretion in HNSCC tissue is a biomarker for poor prognosis. In as much as enhanced cytokine secretion is associated with poor prognosis, TTP may be a therapeutic target to reduce multiple cytokines concurrently in patients with HNSCC.Cancer 06/2011; 117(12):2677-89. · 4.77 Impact Factor
Article: The activation pattern of blood leukocytes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is correlated to survival.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is known to cause substantial immunosuppression. The present study was designed to characterize blood leukocyte activation in HNSCC and to investigate if the individual activation pattern could be related to tumor progress and survival. The leukocyte activation profile of HNSCC patients and healthy controls was assessed with flow cytometry. HNSCC patients displayed increased numbers of monocytes, neutrophils and total leukocytes as well as an enhanced neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio. In addition, patients had a higher percentage of CD69(+), CD71(+) and CD98(+) T cell subsets and NK cells, and a reduced expression of L-selectin in CD14(high)CD16(+) monocytes and neutrophils, when compared to controls. These changes could be correlated to both tumor burden and spread to lymph nodes. Among the cancer patients an increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, a low neutrophil and CD14(high) CD16(+) monocyte activation state and an elevated CD4/CD8 ratio were related to poor survival. In contrast, a high percentage of CD98(+) Th cells appeared to be associated with a better outcome. Taken together, the present data indicate that HNSCC causes activation of blood leukocytes and that the individual activation pattern can be linked to prognosis.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(12):e51120. · 4.09 Impact Factor