Effect of estradiol and progesterone on thyroid gland in pigs: a histochemical, stereological, and ultrastructural study.
ABSTRACT The cellular and subcellular organization of thyroid follicular cells in peripubertal (6-month-old) male pigs treated with estradiol-dipropionate (Oe) plus progesterone (Pr) in combination on the first postnatal day was studied. A stereological method was used for morphometric determinations of the relative volume densities of the follicular epithelium, colloid and interstitium, and for establishing the epithelial height and index of activation rate. Statistically significant differences of the examined parameters between the control and Oe+Pr -treated groups were determined by Student's t-test. The subcellular organization of thyroid follicular cells was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). When compared with the control group, in the Oe+Pr -treated pigs, thyroid follicles possessed a noticeably higher follicular epithelium when compared with the control animals. The observed changes were quantified and comparison between the experimental groups showed that the height, volume density of follicular epithelium, and index of activation rate were significantly (P < 0.05) increased, whereas the relative volume density of the colloid was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased. At the subcellular level the thyroid follicular cells of Oe+Pr -treated pigs were characterized by increased number of polysomes and dense bodies and extensive endoplasmatic reticulum. It was concluded that a single neonatal treatment with female gonadal steroids exerted a prolonged effect on the pig's thyroid, characterized by increased biosynthesis and reabsorption of the colloid by the follicular cells.
- SourceAvailable from: Wolfgang H. Muss[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The presence of steroid hormone receptors has previously been suggested in thyroid tissue by biochemical means. Our studies were designed to confirm these results and to localize the specific receptor-containing cell type using a novel immunocytochemical method. Monoclonal antibodies specific to estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PgR) were used to localize these steroid hormone receptors in the human thyroid gland. Frozen tissue sections from surgical specimens excised from 22 patients of both sexes with benign thyroid disease were studied. The sections were incubated with rat antiestrophilin and antiprogesterone receptor antibodies and were then exposed to rabbit anti-rat IgG and to rat peroxidase-antiperoxidase complex. The reaction product was visualized with diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride and hydrogen peroxide. Four specimens were positive for both ER and PgR, 16 were ER-positive and PgR-negative, and two were negative for both ER and PgR. Positive reactivity was limited to the follicular lining cell nuclei and varied from focal to diffuse. The immunohistochemical findings confirmed the presence of ER and PgR in the thyroid tissue and demonstrated for the first time that these receptors are present only in the nuclei of the lining cells of the thyroid follicle. The role of steroid hormone receptors in the thyroid in health and disease remains to be explained.Surgery 01/1990; 106(6):975-8; discussion 979. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Following total thyroidectomy, a small quantity of thyroid tissue was transplanted to the spleen in order to study thyroid tissue subjected to chronically elevated levels of endogenous thyrotropin (TSH). Plasma thyroxine (T4) and TSH levels were monitored and correlated with ultrastructural studies of the tissue over a 32-week experimental period. The effects of administration of an iodine-poor diet, and exogenous acute dose of TSH, and suppression of endogenous TSH through thyroxine administration were studied in order to evaluate the plasticity of the experimental model. Plasma T4 decreased after the first week and remained at approximately one half of the initial value until 12 weeks. Plasma TSH increased to a high of 6,220 ng/ ml after 6 weeks and gradually declined to one half of that value. The transplanted tissue remained functional throughout the experimental period. The number of pseudopods decreased, and irregularly shaped, dense bodies increased from the time of surgery until 12 weeks later. Administration of an acute dose of TSH at this time resulted in obvious mitotic activity and the formation of numerous pseudopods. The tissue also maintained the ability to take up radioactive iodine and to iodinate thyroglobulin. Inhibition of TSH secretion through T4 administration from the time of surgery did not affect viability. Some cellular hypertrophy persisted after 32 weeks although TSH and T4 had returned to normal. This study has shown that thyroid tissue remains viable, functional, and experimentally alterable throughout an extended period of chronic stimulation by endogenous TSH, and that it has the reserve capacity to secrete normal levels of T4 at the end of this experimental period.American Journal of Anatomy 02/1983; 166(1):73-82.
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ABSTRACT: Thyroid iodine turnover heterogeneity includes morphological (cellular and colloidal distribution space for iodide) and functional heterogeneity (hormone synthesis in the colloid). In 'normal' rats, both iodide actively trapped by the epithelial cell and that coming from deiodination of iodotyrosines present the same probability for thyroglobulin (Tg) iodination (Tg iodination flux: 4.0 +/- 0.3 micrograms I/day). A portion of the thyroid iodide is sequestered in the colloid lumen and is inoperative in the Tg iodination mechanisms. The masses of cell and colloid compartments are equivalent (0.018 +/- 0.002 micrograms I) while colloid iodide concentration is twice that of the cell (0.11 and 0.06, respectively). The turnover of about 3 micrograms I of colloid iodine (Tg) is follicle diameter-dependent (inter-follicular heterogeneity) and it is mainly characterized by 2 different half lives of 8 and 16 hours, respectively. Ninety percent of the thyroid iodine (hormone) secretion (1.10 +/- 0.11 micrograms I/day) is provided by this compartment rich in iodotyrosine residues (70%). The remaining 10% of iodine secretion is provided by a Tg pool (7 micrograms I) characterized by 2 compartments (intra-follicular heterogeneity) with slow and very slow turnovers. The longer the transit time of Tg molecules in the colloid, the higher their iodothyronine content.General Physiology and Biophysics 03/1985; 4(1):55-68. · 0.85 Impact Factor