Article

Decidual stromal cell response to paracrine signals from the trophoblast: amplification of immune and angiogenic modulators.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0132, USA.
Biology of Reproduction (Impact Factor: 4.03). 02/2007; 76(1):102-17. DOI: 10.1095/biolreprod.106.054791
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT During the invasive phase of implantation, trophoblasts and maternal decidual stromal cells secrete products that regulate trophoblast differentiation and migration into the maternal endometrium. Paracrine interactions between the extravillous trophoblast and the maternal decidua are important for successful embryonic implantation, including establishing the placental vasculature, anchoring the placenta to the uterine wall, and promoting the immunoacceptance of the fetal allograph. To our knowledge, global crosstalk between the trophoblast and the decidua has not been elucidated to date, and the present study used a functional genomics approach to investigate these paracrine interactions. Human endometrial stromal cells were decidualized with progesterone and further treated with conditioned media from human trophoblasts (TCM) or, as a control, with control conditioned media (CCM) from nondecidualized stromal cells for 0, 3, and 12 h. Total RNA was isolated and processed for analysis on whole-genome, high-density oligonucleotide arrays containing 54,600 genes. We found that 1374 genes were significantly upregulated and that 3443 genes were significantly downregulated after 12 h of coincubation of stromal cells with TCM, compared to CCM. Among the most upregulated genes were the chemokines CXCL1 (GRO1) and IL8,CXCR4, and other genes involved in the immune response (CCL8 [SCYA8], pentraxin 3 (PTX3), IL6, and interferon-regulated and -related genes) as well as TNFAIP6 (tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 6) and metalloproteinases (MMP1, MMP10, and MMP14). Among the downregulated genes were growth factors, e.g., IGF1, FGF1, TGFB1, and angiopoietin-1, and genes involved in Wnt signaling (WNT4 and FZD). Real-time RT-PCR and ELISAs, as well as immunohistochemical analysis of human placental bed specimens, confirmed these data for representative genes of both up- and downregulated groups. The data demonstrate a significant induction of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as angiogenic/static factors in decidualized endometrial stromal cells in response to trophoblast-secreted products. The data suggest that the trophoblast acts to alter the local immune environment of the decidua to facilitate the process of implantation and ensure an enriched cytokine/chemokine environment while limiting the mitotic activity of the stromal cells during the invasive phase of implantation.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
77 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Embryo implantation and formation of a functional placenta are complex processes that require a plethora of regulatory molecules. In recent years, many of these mediators have been identified, often from studies in experimental animals. Furthermore, their expression patterns at the embryo-maternal interface in women have been characterized and provide clues to their potential actions. What has been missing in most cases is any experimental demonstration of their function. Proteases, cytokines and chemokines are among the molecules identified at the embryo-maternal interface. Functional studies of the protease, proprotein convertase (PC)6, the gp130 cytokines, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and interleukin (IL)11 and the chemokines, CX3CL1 and CCL14 demonstrate potential actions within the uterine cavity. These actions include: enhancing blastocyst development, modifying adhesive properties of the blastocyst and the uterine epithelial surface, and providing chemotactic guidance to the blastocyst. As implantation proceeds, PC6 and IL-11 also act to drive decidualization. The products (proteases, chemokines and cytokines) produced by these decidual cells provide a unique environment. This is important for both directing and restraining trophoblast invasion and for leukocyte trafficking into the decidua until the placenta is fully established.
    The International journal of developmental biology 09/2009; 54(2-3):313-22. · 2.16 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Murine knock-out models and blastocyst co-culture studies have identified prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS) 2, prostaglandin (PG) E receptor 2 (PTGER2) and the chemokine receptor CXCR4 as important regulators of early pregnancy events. In vitro studies and studies in non-human primates have shown that these proteins are regulated in the endometrium by the early embryonic signal, chorionic gonadotrophin (CG). Here we show that expressions of PTGER2 and CXCR4 are elevated during the mid-secretory phase of the menstrual cycle and decidua of early pregnancy in humans. Using first trimester decidua explants, we show that CG induces expression of PTGS2 and biosynthesis of PGE₂, and expression of PTGER2. Subsequently, PGE₂via PTGER2 induces expression of CXCR4. Using an in vitro model system of Ishikawa endometrial epithelial cells stably expressing PTGER2 and human first trimester decidua explants, we demonstrate that CXCR4 expression is regulated by PTGER2 via the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) pathway.Taken together, our data suggest that early embryonic signals may regulate fetal-maternal crosstalk in the human endometrium by inducing CXCR4 expression via the PGE₂-PTGER2-mediated induction of the EGFR, PI3K and ERK1/2 pathways.
    Molecular Human Reproduction 01/2011; 17(1):22-32. · 4.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Early molecular interaction between embryo and mother, involving chemoattractants, especially chemokine CXC-motif ligand 1 (CXCL1)(2), determines the pregnancy outcome. So far nothing is known about the signalling cascades of CXCL1 expression in human decidua. The aim of the study was to identify signalling cascades mediating the CXCL1 expression in human decidua incubated with IL-1β as a major secretion product of the embryo. Therefore, decidualised endometrial stromal cells were incubated with IL-1β in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The specificity of the IL-1β induced CXCL1 expression was verified by application of the IL-1 receptor antagonist, which opposed the binding of IL-1β to its receptor, leading to a dose dependent diminished to complete CXCL1 elimination. IL-1β signalling was investigated using inhibitors for MAPK, STAT3 and JNKinase cascades. The CXCL1 secretion of decidualised endometrial cells was measured by ELISA. The MAPK signalling cascade was explored by western blot analysis of ERK and NFκB p65(3) as well as phospho ERK and pp65 activation by IL-1β in detail. A statistical significant increase in CXCL1 mRNA- and protein-expression after incubation with 0.1ng/ml IL-1β after 48h was detected. CXCL1 protein secretion could be completely prevented by IL-1 receptor antagonist treatment. Only inhibition of the MAPKinase pathway resulted in a statistically significant decrease of CXCL1 protein secretion. Initiation of the MAPK pathway depicted by phospho ERK activation started as early as 2min after coincubation of decidualised endometrial stromal cells with IL-1β. Activation of NFκB p65 could be measured within 15min of IL-1β incubation in decidualised endometrial stromal cells. CXCL1 is a target for the embryos' secretion product IL-1β in decidualised endometrial stromal cells during the peri-implantation period. IL-1β's rapid effect on CXCL1 synthesis is uniquely mediated via the MAPK-signalling cascade and the activation of CXCL1s' transcription factor NFκB p65.
    Cytokine 08/2013; · 2.52 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
19 Downloads
Available from
Jun 4, 2014