MLN120B, a novel IkappaB kinase beta inhibitor, blocks multiple myeloma cell growth in vitro and in vivo.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to delineate the biological significance of IkappaB kinase (IKK) beta inhibition in multiple myeloma cells in the context of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) using a novel IKKbeta inhibitor MLN120B.
Growth-inhibitory effect of MLN120B in multiple myeloma cells in the presence of cytokines [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1)], conventional agents (dexamethasone, melphalan, and doxorubicin), or BMSC was assessed in vitro. In vivo anti-multiple myeloma activity of MLN120B was evaluated in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID)-hu model.
MLN120B inhibits both baseline and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activation, associated with down-regulation of IkappaBalpha and p65 nuclear factor-kappaB phosphorylation. MLN120B triggers 25% to 90% growth inhibition in a dose-dependent fashion in multiple myeloma cell lines and significantly augments tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced cytotoxicity in MM.1S cells. MLN120B augments growth inhibition triggered by doxorubicin and melphalan in both RPMI 8226 and IL-6-dependent INA6 cell lines. Neither IL-6 nor IGF-1 overcomes the growth-inhibitory effect of MLN120B. MLN120B inhibits constitutive IL-6 secretion by BMSCs by 70% to 80% without affecting viability. Importantly, MLN120B almost completely blocks stimulation of MM.1S, U266, and INA6 cell growth, as well as IL-6 secretion from BMSCs, induced by multiple myeloma cell adherence to BMSCs. MLN120B overcomes the protective effect of BMSCs against conventional (dexamethasone) therapy.
Our data show that the novel IKKbeta inhibitor MLN120B induces growth inhibition of multiple myeloma cells in SCID-hu mouse model. These studies provide the framework for clinical evaluation of MLN120B, alone and in combined therapies, trials of these novel agents to improve patient outcome in multiple myeloma.
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ABSTRACT: Leukemia cells are protected from chemotherapy-induced apoptosis by their interactions with bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSC). Yet the underlying mechanisms associated with this protective effect remain unclear. Genome-wide gene expression profiling of BM-MSC revealed that co-culture with leukemia cells upregulated the transcription of genes associated with NF-κB signaling. Moreover, primary BM-MSC from leukemia patients expressed NF-κB target genes at higher levels than their normal BM-MSC counterparts. The blockade of NF-κB activation via chemical agents or the overexpression of the mutant form of IκBα in BM-MSC markedly reduced the stromal-mediated drug resistance in leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo. In particular, our unique in vivo model of human leukemia BM microenvironment illustrated a direct link between NF-κB activation and stromal-associated chemo-protection. Mechanistic in vitro studies revealed that the interaction between VCAM-1 and VLA-4 played an integral role in the activation of NF-κB in the stromal and tumor cell compartments. Together, these results suggest that reciprocal NF-κB activation in BM-MSC and leukemia cells is essential for promoting chemoresistance in the transformed cells, and targeting NF-κB or VLA-4/VCAM-1 signaling could be a clinically relevant mechanism to overcome stroma-mediated chemoresistance in BM-resident leukemia cells.Blood 03/2014; · 9.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The discovery of constitutive nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation in Hodgkin's lymphoma tumor cells almost two decades ago was one of the first reports that directly connected deregulated NF-κB signaling to human cancer. Subsequent studies demonstrated that enhanced NF-κB signaling is a common hallmark of many lymphoid malignancies, including Hodgkin lymphoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma. By inducing an anti-apoptotic and pro-proliferative gene program, NF-κB is involved in lymphoma survival and growth. Identification of somatic mutations that led to activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes in the pathway revealed that specific pathogenic mechanisms are responsible for constitutive NF-κB activation in different lymphoma entities. Thus, the identification of distinct oncogenic events is reflecting the diverse cellular origins of the different lymphomas. Further, elucidation of the mechanisms that drive NF-κB in lymphoma is of high clinical relevance as it will allow the design of target-directed precision therapy. Indeed, a number of drugs that impair constitutive NF-κB activation in lymphoid malignancies are currently in preclinical or clinical development.Oncogene advance online publication, 27 January 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.565.Oncogene 01/2014; · 8.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Immunosuppressive cells have been reported to play an important role in tumor-progression mainly because of their capability to promote immune-escape, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Among them, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have been recently identified as immature myeloid cells, induced by tumor-associated inflammation, able to impair both innate and adaptive immunity. While murine MDSCs are usually identified by the expression of CD11b and Gr1, human MDSCs represent a more heterogeneous population characterized by the expression of CD33 and CD11b, low or no HLA-DR, and variable CD14 and CD15. In particular, the last two may alternatively identify monocyte-like or granulocyte-like MDSC subsets with different immunosuppressive properties. Recently, a substantial increase of MDSCs has been found in peripheral blood and bone marrow (BM) of multiple myeloma (MM) patients with a role in disease progression and/or drug resistance. Pre-clinical models recapitulating the complexity of the MM-related BM microenvironment (BMM) are major tools for the study of the interactions between MM cells and cells of the BMM (including MDSCs) and for the development of new agents targeting MM-associated immune-suppressive cells. This review will focus on current strategies for human MDSCs generation and investigation of their immunosuppressive function in vitro and in vivo, taking into account the relevant relationship occurring within the MM-BMM. We will then provide trends in MDSC-associated research and suggest potential application for the treatment of MM.Frontiers in oncology. 01/2014; 4:348.