MLN120B, a novel IkappaB kinase beta inhibitor, blocks multiple myeloma cell growth in vitro and in vivo.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to delineate the biological significance of IkappaB kinase (IKK) beta inhibition in multiple myeloma cells in the context of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) using a novel IKKbeta inhibitor MLN120B.
Growth-inhibitory effect of MLN120B in multiple myeloma cells in the presence of cytokines [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1)], conventional agents (dexamethasone, melphalan, and doxorubicin), or BMSC was assessed in vitro. In vivo anti-multiple myeloma activity of MLN120B was evaluated in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID)-hu model.
MLN120B inhibits both baseline and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activation, associated with down-regulation of IkappaBalpha and p65 nuclear factor-kappaB phosphorylation. MLN120B triggers 25% to 90% growth inhibition in a dose-dependent fashion in multiple myeloma cell lines and significantly augments tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced cytotoxicity in MM.1S cells. MLN120B augments growth inhibition triggered by doxorubicin and melphalan in both RPMI 8226 and IL-6-dependent INA6 cell lines. Neither IL-6 nor IGF-1 overcomes the growth-inhibitory effect of MLN120B. MLN120B inhibits constitutive IL-6 secretion by BMSCs by 70% to 80% without affecting viability. Importantly, MLN120B almost completely blocks stimulation of MM.1S, U266, and INA6 cell growth, as well as IL-6 secretion from BMSCs, induced by multiple myeloma cell adherence to BMSCs. MLN120B overcomes the protective effect of BMSCs against conventional (dexamethasone) therapy.
Our data show that the novel IKKbeta inhibitor MLN120B induces growth inhibition of multiple myeloma cells in SCID-hu mouse model. These studies provide the framework for clinical evaluation of MLN120B, alone and in combined therapies, trials of these novel agents to improve patient outcome in multiple myeloma.
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ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma (MM) displays an NFκB activity-related gene expression signature and about 20% of primary MM samples harbor genetic alterations conducive to intrinsic NFκB signaling activation. The relevance of blocking the classical versus the alternative NFκB signaling pathway and the molecular execution mechanisms involved, however, are still poorly understood. Here, we comparatively tested NFκB activity abrogation through TPCA-1 (an IKK2 inhibitor), BAY 11-7082 (an IKK inhibitor poorly selective for IKK1 and IKK2), and MLN4924 (an NEDD8 activating enzyme (NAE)-inhibitor), and analyzed their anti-MM activity. Whereas TPCA-1 interfered selectively with activation of the classical NFκB pathway, the other two compounds inhibited classical and alternative NFκB signaling without significant discrimination. Noteworthy, whereas TPCA-1 and MLN4924 elicited rather mild anti-MM effects with slight to moderate cell death induction after 1 day BAY 11-7082 was uniformly highly toxic to MM cell lines and primary MM cells. Treatment with BAY 11-7082 induced rapid cell swelling and its initial effects were blocked by necrostatin-1 or the ROS scavenger BHA, but a lasting protective effect was not achieved even with additional blockade of caspases. Because MLN4924 inhibits the alternative NFκB pathway downstream of IKK1 at the level of p100 processing, the quite discordant effects between MLN4924 and BAY 11-7082 must thus be due to blockade of IKK1-mediated NFκB-independent necrosis-inhibitory functions or represent an off-target effect of BAY 11-7082. In accordance with the latter, we further observed that concomitant knockdown of IKK1 and IKK2 did not have any major short-term adverse effect on the viability of MM cells.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e59292. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Myeloma develops due to the accumulation of multiple pathological genetic events, many of which have been defined. Hyperdiploidy and reciprocal translocations centered on the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region constitute primary genetic lesions. These primary lesions co-operate with secondary genetic events including chromosomal deletions and gains, gene mutations and epigenetic modifiers such as DNA methylation to produce the malignant phenotype of myeloma. Some of these events have been linked with distinct clinical outcome and can be used to define patient groups. This review explores the molecular biology of myeloma and identifies how genetic lesions can be used to define high- and low-risk patient groups, and also defines potential targets for therapy. The authors also explore how this information can be used to guide therapeutic decision-making and the design and interpretation of clinical trials, both now and in the future.Expert Review of Hematology 12/2012; 5(6):603-617. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: IL-6 and TNF α were significantly increased in the bone marrow aspirate samples of patients with active multiple myeloma (MM) compared to those of normal controls. Furthermore, MM patients with advanced aggressive disease had significantly higher levels of IL-6 and TNF α than those with MM in plateau phase. TNF α increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) production from MM cells. However, the detailed mechanisms involved in signaling pathways by which TNF α promotes IL-6 secretion from MM cells are largely unknown. In our study, we found that TNF α treatments induce MEK and AKT phosphorylation. TNF α -stimulated IL-6 production was abolished by inhibition of JAK2 and IKK β or by small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting TNF receptors (TNFR) but not by MEK, p38, and PI3K inhibitors. Also, TNF α increased phosphorylation of STAT3 (ser727) including c-Myc and cyclin D1. Three different types of JAK inhibitors decreased the activation of the previously mentioned pathways. In conclusion, blockage of JAK/STAT-mediated NF- κ B activation was highly effective in controlling the growth of MM cells and, consequently, an inhibitor of TNF α -mediated IL-6 secretion would be a potential new therapeutic agent for patients with multiple myeloma.BioMed research international. 01/2013; 2013:580135.