Interlaboratory evaluation of Hyalella azteca and Chironomus tentans short-term and long-term sediment toxicity tests.
ABSTRACT Methods for assessing the long-term toxicity of sediments to Hyalella azteca and Chironomus tentans can significantly enhance the capacity to assess sublethal effects of contaminated sediments through multiple endpoints. Sublethal tests allow us to begin to understand the relationship between short-term and long-term effects for toxic sediments. We present an interlaboratory evaluation with long-term and 10-d tests using control and contaminated sediments in which we assess whether proposed and existing performance criteria (test acceptability criteria [TAC]) could be achieved. Laboratories became familiar with newly developed, long-term protocols by testing two control sediments in phase 1. In phase 2, the 10-d and long-term tests were examined with several sediments. Laboratories met the TACs, but results varied depending on the test organism, test duration, and endpoints. For the long-term tests in phase 1, 66 to 100% of the laboratories consistently met the TACs for survival, growth, or reproduction using H. azrteca, and 70 to 100% of the laboratories met the TACs for survival and growth, emergence, reproduction, and hatchability using C. tentans. In phase 2, fewer laboratories participated in long-term tests: 71 to 88% of the laboratories met the TAC for H. azteca, whereas 50 to 67% met the TAC for C. tentans. In the 10-d tests with H. azteca and C. tentans, 82 and 88% of the laboratories met the TAC for survival, respectively, and 80% met the TAC for C. tentans growth. For the 10-d and long-term tests, laboratories predicted similar toxicity. Overall, the interlaboratory evaluation showed good precision of the methods, appropriate endpoints were incorporated into the test protocols, and tests effectively predicted the toxicity of sediments.
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ABSTRACT: Chromium toxicity assessment of marine sediments in Peru is a topic of increasing interest. Mean lethal concentration of chromium (Cr+6) using the marine bivalve Donax obesulus Reeve 1854 (Pelecypoda: Donacidae) at 24 h, 48 h and 96 h of exposure was assessed, as well as its burying ability in a chromium (Cr+6) sediment. For D. obesulus acclimatization and rearing the marine microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta Butcher was employed. The assay was performed with 22.4 mm ± 1.5 mm D. obesulus adults. Mean lethal concentration (LC50) in chromium Cr +6 D. obesulus marine sediment was 410.4 mg·kg-1, 156.1 mg·kg-1 and 61.12 mg·kg-1 at 24 h, 48 h and 96 h of exposure, respectively. A guideline value proposed by Long et al. (1995) for chromium in an aquatic sediment is 370 mg·kg -1 . The results obtained in terms of LC50 at 48 h and 96 h for D. obesulus, exposed to chromium, were 57.8% and 83.5%, lower than the guideline value, respectively. Chromium presented a notorious sublethal effect on D. obesulus burying ability at 48 h of exposure. The protocol using D. obesulus has advantages in terms of sensibility, easy use, simplicity of reading, low cost and ecological realism.
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ABSTRACT: Hydrophobic organic contaminants readily partition from aqueous to organic phases in aquatic systems with past research largely focusing on sediment. However, within many aquatic systems, matrices such as leaf material and detritus are abundant and ecologically important, as they may represent a primary exposure route for aquatic invertebrates. The objectives of the present study were to examine partitioning and toxicity to Hyalella azteca among permethrin and p,p'-DDT contaminated sediment, leaf, and a sediment-leaf mixture. Log organic carbon-water partitioning coefficients ranged from 4.21 to 5.82 for both insecticides, and were greatest within sediment and lowest in coarse leaf material. H. azteca lethal concentrations for 50% of the population (LC50s) ranged from 0.5 to 111μgg(-1) organic carbon, and were dependent on the matrix composition. The variation in sorption and toxicity among matrices common within stream ecosystems suggests that the ecological niche of aquatic organisms may be important for estimating risk of hydrophobic pesticides.Chemosphere 02/2014; · 3.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: With the aim of supporting decision makers to manage contamination in freshwater environments, an innovative expert decision support system (EDSS) was developed. The EDSS was applied in a sediment quality assessment along the Bormida river (NW, Italy) which has been heavily contaminated by an upstream industrial site for more than a century. Sampling sites were classified by means of comparing chemical concentrations with effect-based target values (threshold and probable effect concentrations). The level of each contaminant and the combined toxic pressure were used to rank sites into three categories: (i) uncontaminated (8 sites), (ii) mildly contaminated (4) and (iii) heavily contaminated (19). In heavily contaminated sediments, an environmental risk index (EnvRI) was determined by means of integrating chemical data with ecotoxicological and ecological parameters (triad approach). In addition a sediment risk index (SedRI) was computed from combining chemical and ecotoxicological data. Eight sites exhibited EnvRI values ≥0.25, the safety threshold level (range of EnvRI values: 0.14-0.31) whereas SedRI exceeded the safety threshold level at 6 sites (range of SedRI values: 0.16-0.36). At sites classified as mildly contaminated, sublethal biomarkers were integrated with chemical data into a biological vulnerability index (BVI), which exceeded the safety threshold level at one site (BVI value: 0.28). Finally, potential human risk was assessed in selected stations (11 sites) by integrating genotoxicity biomarkers (GTI index falling in the range 0.00-0.53). General conclusions drawn from the EDSS data include: (i) in sites classified as heavily contaminated, only a few exhibited some significant, yet limited, effects on biodiversity; (ii) restrictions in re-using sediments from heavily contaminated sites found little support in ecotoxicological data; (iii) in the majority of the sites classified as mildly contaminated, tested organisms exhibited low response levels; (iv) preliminary results on genotoxicity biomarkers indicate possible negative consequences for humans if exposed to river sediments from target areas.Environment international 09/2013; 60C:171-182. · 6.25 Impact Factor