Chronic lumbar epidural haematoma presenting with acute paraparesis
ABSTRACT Chronic spinal epidural haematomas are very rare and have been reported to occur only in the lumbar region. They usually become symptomatic through radicular pain or neurogenic claudication. The epidural bleeding is thought to originate from a rupture of an epidural vein due to a sudden increase in intra-abdominal pressure or due to trauma. The patient reported on here developed acute paraparesis about 8 weeks after a mild fall on the buttocks. MRI showed a spinal epidural mass located dorsolaterally at the level of L3-L5. The mass was surgically removed. Histological and immunohistological studies disclosed an organised haematoma. The clinical, radiological and intra-operative features of this case are described, and the relevant literature is analysed.
SourceAvailable from: Michele Alessandro Cavallo[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) represents the most frequent entity of acute or chronic spinal bleeding. Based upon pathogenesis, SEH can be classified as idiopathic, spontaneous, and secondary. The idiopathic forms are considered not to be attributed to any specific risk factors. Spontaneous SEH, accounting for 0.3-0.9% of all spinal epidural space occupying lesions, instead is associated with risk factors (such as substantial soft trauma or coagulation abnormalities). The chronic form, as our literature review revealed, is the rarest and its most frequent location is the lumbar spine. The pathophysiology of spontaneous and idiopathic SEH is still under debate: There are only a few reports in literature of chronically evolving SEH with progressively increasing pain and neurological impairment. Magnetic resonance imaging may be inconclusive for differential diagnosis. Here, we present two cases of lumbar chronic SEH with slow, progressive, and persistent lumbar radicular impairment. The first patient reported a minor trauma with slight back contusion and thus was classified as spontaneous SEH. In the second case not even a minor trauma was involved, so we considered it to be idiopathic SEH. In both cases preoperative blood and coagulation tests were normal and we did not find any other or co-factors in the patients' clinical histories. MR imaging showed uncertain spinal canal obstructing lesions at L3 and L4 level in both cases. Surgical treatment allowed a correct diagnosis and resulted in full clinical and neuroradiological recovery after 1 year follow-up. Our aim is to discuss pathogenesis, clinical and radiological features, differential diagnosis and treatment options, on the background of relevant literature review.European Spine Journal 10/2009; 18(11):1055-61. DOI:10.1007/s00586-009-1175-6 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) is an uncommon disorder, and chronic SEHs are rarer than acute SEHs. However, there is few reported involving the bone change of the vertebral body in chronic SEHs. We present a case report of lumbar epidural hematoma that required differentiation from extramedullary spinal tumors by a long process because the CT scan revealed scalloping of the vertebral body and review the relevant literature. A 78-year-old man had experienced a gradual onset of low back pain and excruciating pain in both legs. Lumbar MRI on T1-weighted images revealed a space-occupying lesion with a hyperintense signal relative to the spinal cord with no enhancement on gadolinium adminisration. Meanwhile, T2-weighted images revealed a heterogeneous intensity change, accompanying a central area of hyperintense signals with a hypointense peripheral border at the L4 vertebra. Moreover, the CT scan demonstrated scalloping of the posterior wall of the L4 vertebral body which is generally suspected as the CT finding of spainal tumor. During the epidural space exploration, we found a dark red-colored mass surrounded by a capsular layer, which was fibrous and adhered to the flavum and dura mater. Microscopic histological examination of the resected mass revealed a mixture of the relatively new hematoma and the hematoma that was moving into the connective tissue. Accordingly, the hematoma was diagnosed as chronic SEH. The particular MRI findings of chronic SEHs are helpful for making accurate preoperative diagnoses of this pathology.Nagoya journal of medical science 02/2014; 76(1-2):195-201. · 0.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The spontaneous epidural hematoma (SEH) is an uncommon disease characterized by severe cervical, dorsal or lumbar pain and radicular irradiation that is sometimes accompanied by spinal cord compression symptoms. It can occur from by many causes (traumatisms, tumors, arteriovenous malformations or poor control of oral anticoagulants [OAC]). Its suspicion after an adequate anamnesis and physical examination is fundamental since it requires early surgical treatment. We present the case of an 80-year old female patient under treatment with OAC (with poor control of them) who came to the medical consultation of Primary Care complained of low back pain.SEMERGEN - Medicina de Familia 10/2008; 34(8):420-424. DOI:10.1016/S1138-3593(08)72353-0