Distinct molecular patterns based on proximal and distal sporadic colorectal cancer: arguments for different mechanisms in the tumorigenesis.
ABSTRACT Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks as the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide. CRCs that arise proximally or distally to the splenic flexure show differences in epidemiologic incidence, morphology, and molecular alterations, suggesting the existence of two categories of CRC based on the site of origin. The aim of the present work is to investigate the histological and molecular differences between CRCs located proximally and distally to the splenic flexure, and their potential involvement in tumor prognosis and therapeutic strategies.
We evaluated 120 patients affected by sporadic CRC for clinicopathologic features, microsatellite instability (MSI), loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosomes 18q, 8p, and 4p; they were also investigated for hMlh1, hMsh2, Fhit, p27, and Cox-2 immunostaining.
The mucinous histotype was more frequent in the proximal than in the distal CRCs (p<0.004). The frequency of MSI phenotype was higher in proximal than in distal tumors (p<0.001); moreover, reduced or absent hMlh1, Fhit, p27 immunohistochemical expressions were more frequent in proximal than in distal tumors (p<0.001 and 0.01 for p27). In contrast, the frequency of LOH in 18q was higher in distal than in proximal tumors (p=0.002). No significant differences were observed between proximal and distal tumors in the frequency of LOH in 8p and altered expression of hMsh2 and p53 protein.
These different features may reflect different genetic pathways of carcinogenesis and support the hypothesis of a different mechanism of cancer development between the proximal and the distal colon, with potential implications in the therapeutic approach.
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ABSTRACT: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and hormone therapy (HT) independently decrease the risk of colorectal cancer. However, their role in altering survival after a colorectal cancer diagnosis is not well established. We examined the association between the use of these common medications before diagnosis and colorectal cancer survival among women in western Washington State diagnosed with incident colorectal cancer from 1997 to 2002. Cases were ascertained using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results cancer registry; mortality follow-up was completed through linkages to the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We observed no overall association between colorectal cancer survival and pre-diagnostic NSAID use. However, when stratified by tumour sub-site, NSAID use was associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer mortality for women diagnosed with proximal (HR=0.55; 95% CI: 0.32-0.92), but not distal or rectal (HR=1.32; 95% CI: 0.83-2.10) tumours. The usage of HT was not associated with colorectal cancer survival overall or by tumour sub-site. Usage of NSAIDs before diagnosis may be associated with improved colorectal cancer survival among women diagnosed with proximal tumours. The usage of HT does not appear to have a function in altering colorectal cancer mortality.British Journal of Cancer 02/2011; 104(5):763-8. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6606041 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Activation of RAS signalling induced by K-ras/BRAF mutations is a hallmark of colorectal tumours. In addition, Ras association domain families 1 and 2 (RASSF1 and RASSF2), the negative regulators of K-ras, are often inactivated by methylation of the promoter region in those tumours. However, reports showing differences in the occurrence of these alterations on the basis of tumour characteristics have been scarce. We analysed K-ras/BRAF mutations and the methylation status of RASSF1 and RASSF2 promoter regions in 120 colorectal adenomas with respect to their clinicopathological features. K-ras/BRAF mutations and RASSF2 methylation were observed in 49 (41%) and 30 (25%) of the samples, respectively, while RASSF1 methylation was observed in only 3 (2.5%). Adenomas with RASSF2 methylation often carried K-ras/BRAF mutations simultaneously (22 out of 30, P<0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed that the concomitance of these alterations was frequently observed in serrated adenomas (odds ratio (OR) 11.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.96-63.00), but rarely in adenomas located in the sigmoid or descending colon (OR 0.13; 95% CI 0.03-0.58). A comparison between adenomas and cancers showed a significantly higher prevalence of these alterations in cancers than in adenomas in the proximal colon (58 vs 27%, P=0.02). Frequency and the time point of the occurrence of Ras signalling disorders differ according to colorectal neoplasia's characteristics, particularly the location.British Journal of Cancer 11/2007; 97(10):1425-31. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604014 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An incremental theory of diffraction (ITD) formulation is applied to the prediction of the field scattered by moderately sized, local circular cylinder-shaped structures. Explicit, closed-form, ITD dyadic scattering coefficients are used. The main advantage of the proposed approach is that it overcomes difficulties in applying ray methods close and at caustics, yet smoothly recovering the ray-field description where the latter is applicable and effective.Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 2005 IEEE; 08/2005