Antisense targeting of CXXC finger protein 1 inhibits genomic cytosine methylation and primitive hematopoiesis in zebrafish
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana, United StatesJournal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 01/2007; 281(48):37034-44. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M604546200
CXXC finger protein 1 (CFP1) binds to unmethylated CpG dinucleotides and is a component of the Set1 histone methyltransferase complex. Mice lacking CFP1 suffer a peri-implantation lethal phenotype, and CFP1-deficient embryonic stem cells are viable but unable to differentiate and exhibit a 60-80% decrease in genomic cytosine methylation. A zebrafish homolog of CFP1 has been identified, is approximately 70% similar to murine CFP1, and is widely expressed during development. Zebrafish embryos treated with a zCFP1 antisense morpholino oligonucleotide had little or no circulating red blood cells and exhibited abnormal yolk sac morphology at 48 h post-fertilization. Many of the antisense-treated zebrafish also exhibited cardiac edema, and 14% were dead at 24 h post-fertilization. Morphant zebrafish also exhibited elevated levels of apoptosis, particularly in the intermediate cell mass, the site of primitive erythropoiesis, as well as aberrations in vascular development. Genomic DNA isolated from morphant embryos exhibited a 60% reduction of global genomic cytosine methylation. A similar phenotype was observed with an independent zCFP1 antisense morpholino oligonucleotide, but not following injection of an unrelated control oligonucleotide. The morphant phenotype was rescued when mRNA encoding murine CFP1 was co-injected with the antisense oligonucleotide. Genomic data base analysis reveals the presence of a second version of zebrafish CFP1 (zCFP1b). However, the morphant phenotype observed following specific depletion of zCFP1 indicates that these related genes have nonredundant functions controlling normal zebrafish hematopoiesis and epigenetic regulation. These findings establish the importance of CFP1 during postgastrulation development.
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ABSTRACT: Using a CW Ti:sapphire tunable laser as a pumping source, 1.34 and 1.06 μm fundamental lasers as well as the green laser emission by self-frequency doubling of the 1.06μm laser have been performed in Nd3+:GdAl3(BO3)4 crystal with different transmittance output couplers. The optical conversion efficiencies were measured to be 32% for T=5.2% at 1.06μm and 15.5% for T=1.78% at 1.34μm respectively. 6.4 mW of green laser power was obtained with an absorbed pump power of 1.261 W at 807 nm. The laser output at 1.06μm as a function of pumping wavelength was also measured, and the results show that 750 nm is also an available pumping wavelength. The internal loss and net-gain cross section were estimated to be 0.009cm−1, 2.08×10−19cm2 and 0.013cm−1, 5.04×10−20cm2 for 1.06 and 1.34μm respectively. The IR laser and its self-frequency doubling laser emission can be further improved by optimizing the device design.Optics Communications 04/2002; 204(1):333-338. DOI:10.1016/S0030-4018(02)01255-5 · 1.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CXXC finger protein 1 (CFP1) binds to unmethylated CpG motifs in DNA, is a component of the mammalian Set1 histone methyltransferase complex, and is essential for zebrafish hematopoiesis. Transfection of the human PLB-985 myeloid cell line with a short hairpin RNA directed against the transcript encoding CFP1 results in 80% fewer colonies compared to a vector control, suggesting that CFP1 is required for survival of PLB-985 cells. One clone, CFP1-AS1, exhibits a 70% decrease in CFP1 protein levels and a slower doubling time due to an increase in the proportion of cells in G(1) and G(2) and a decrease of cells in S phase. CFP1-AS1 cells exhibit a 40% reduction of DNA methyltransferase 1 protein but contain normal levels of global genomic cytosine methylation. The CFP1-AS1 clone suffers from a defect of granulocytic differentiation, as approximately half of the cells fail to obtain a terminally differentiated nuclear architecture and fail to generate a respiratory burst. Similar results were obtained upon induction of monocyte/macrophage differentiation. Extended passaging of CFP1-AS1 cells resulted in increased levels of the CFP1 protein, to approximately 85% of wild-type levels, and concomitant rescue of myeloid differentiation. These results demonstrate a role for CFP1 in mammalian hematopoietic development.DNA and Cell Biology 03/2007; 26(2):80-90. DOI:10.1089/dna.2006.0535 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CXXC finger protein 1 (CFP1) is a component of the Setd1A and Setd1B methyltransferase complexes, localizes to euchromatic regions of the genome, and specifically binds unmethylated CpG dinucleotides in DNA. Murine embryos lacking CFP1 exhibit peri-implantation lethality, a developmental time that correlates with global epigenetic reprogramming. CFP1-deficient embryonic stem (ES) cells exhibit a 70% reduction in global cytosine methylation and a 60% decrease in maintenance DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1) activity. DNMT1 protein level is reduced 50% in CFP1-deficient ES cells. Experiments were performed to investigate the role of CFP1 in regulating maintenance cytosine methylation. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments reveal that endogenous DNMT1 and CFP1 interact in vivo. Protein regions required for the interaction between DNMT1 and CFP1 were mapped. Amino acids 169-493 and 970-1617 of DNMT1 are each sufficient for interaction with CFP1. Three regions spanning the CFP1 protein, amino acids 1-123, 103-367, and 361-656, are each sufficient for interaction with DNMT1. Interestingly, a single-point mutation (C375A) within CFP1 that abolishes the interaction with the Setd1A and Setd1B histone H3K4 methyltransferase complexes does not disrupt the interaction between CFP1 and DNMT1. This result indicates that CFP1 intersects the cytosine methylation machinery independently of its association with the Setd1 complexes.DNA and cell biology 09/2008; 27(10):533-43. DOI:10.1089/dna.2007.0714 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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