Metallographic structure and hardness of titanium orthodontic brackets.
ABSTRACT To determine the elemental composition, microstructure, and hardness of two different brands of titanium (Ti) orthodontic brackets.
Four specimens of each brand were embedded in epoxy resin and, after metallographic grinding and polishing, were studied under a metallographic microscope. The bonding base morphology of each bracket was studied in as-received brackets by scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis (EDS) was used on polished specimens to assess the elemental composition of base and wing bracket components, and the brackets were subjected to metallographic etching to reveal the metallurgical structure. The same specimen surfaces were used for assessment of the Vickers hardness. The results were statistically analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the bracket brand and bracket region (base, wing) serving as discriminating variables, whilst further group differences were investigated with Tukey's multiple comparison test at the alpha = 0.05 level of significance.
Metallographic imaging revealed that the Orthos2 brackets (Ormco, Glendora, CA, USA) consist of two parts joined together by laser welding, with large gaps along the base wing interface, whereas Rematitan brackets (Dentaurum, Ispringen, Germany) are single-piece appliances. Ti was the only element identified in Rematitan and Orthos2 base materials, while aluminium (Al) and vanadium (V) were also found in the Orthos2 wing component. Metallographic analysis showed the presence of a + b phase for Orthos2 and plate-like grains for Rematitan. The results of the Vickers hardness testing were: Orthos2 (wing): 371 +/- 22, Rematitan (wing): 272 +/- 4, Rematitan (base): 271 +/- 16, Orthos2 (base): 165 +/- 2.
The findings of the present study suggest that there are significant differences in composition, microstructure and hardness between the two commercial types of Ti brackets tested; the clinical implications of the findings are discussed.
- SourceAvailable from: Spiros ZinelisRecent Patents on Materials Science 01/2010; 1(2):135-139.
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ABSTRACT: To test through various oxidation procedures the differences in antibacterial activities against Streptococcus mutans (S mutans) of Titanium (Ti) and Titanium silver (TiAg) metals coated with TiO(2). This study examined the photocatalytic antibacterial effects on S mutans of Ti and TiAg ubstrates coated with two crystalline forms of TiO(2) by thermal and anodic oxidation. A bacterial suspension of S mutans was pipetted onto TiO(2)-coated metal specimens and uncoated specimens with ultraviolet A (UVA) illumination for 20 to 100 minutes. The same specimen without UVA was used as the control. The level of colony-forming units of S mutans after UVA illumination was compared with that of the control. The level of colony-forming units of S mutans was significantly lower on TiO(2)-coated Ti and TiAg metal specimens after UVA illumination than on uncoated Ti and TiAg specimens. The level of colony-forming units of S mutans was significantly lower on the metals coated by anodic oxidation than on those coated by thermal oxidation. The TiO(2) coating on TiAg had a significantly higher and more rapid antibacterial effect than did the TiO(2) coating on Ti. The antibacterial effect of a TiO(2) film formed by anodic oxidation was superior to that formed by thermal oxidation. The addition of Ag to the Ti specimen indicated a synergistic effect on the photocatalytic antibacterial property against S mutans.The Angle Orthodontist 06/2009; 79(3):528-32. · 1.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fluoride ions, in long-term applications on titanium brackets, cause their corrosion. Fluoride gel used for caries prevention during orthodontic treatment has a very high concentration in fluoride ions, and therefore has the potential for causing bracket corrosion. The main aim of this study was to determine the effect of eliminating the residual fluoride gel, by rinsing it, on the corrosion of titanium brackets. The secondary aim was to evaluate the corrosion of titanium brackets in the presence of fluoride gel. One hundred titanium brackets were divided into five groups of 20 brackets each. Group 1 being the control group, the rest of the groups were immersed in fluoride gel: Group 2 for 4 minutes and kept for 30 minutes with the residual fluoride gel on; Group 3 for 4 minutes followed by immediate water rinsing; Group 4 for 12 minutes and kept for 90 minutes with the residual fluoride gel on and Group 5 for 12 minutes followed by immediate water rinsing. All groups were rinsed then dried, for 20 hours, using Silica gel in a desiccator maintained at 37°C before testing. Gravimetrical results and SEM analysis showed no significant difference between Groups 2, 3 and 5 compared to each other and to the control group. Only Group 4 showed significant weight loss and pitting corrosion in four of the 20 brackets. In sliding resistance, no significant difference was detected between any of the groups. Short time applications of fluoride gel do not affect sliding resistance of titanium brackets. No titanium corrosion was detected for one application of concentrated fluoride gel and some brackets showed pitting corrosion for three applications. The rinsing of residual fluoride gel eliminates completely the risk of bracket corrosion.International Orthodontics 09/2011; 9(3):298-315.