Metallographic structure and hardness of titanium orthodontic brackets.
ABSTRACT To determine the elemental composition, microstructure, and hardness of two different brands of titanium (Ti) orthodontic brackets.
Four specimens of each brand were embedded in epoxy resin and, after metallographic grinding and polishing, were studied under a metallographic microscope. The bonding base morphology of each bracket was studied in as-received brackets by scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis (EDS) was used on polished specimens to assess the elemental composition of base and wing bracket components, and the brackets were subjected to metallographic etching to reveal the metallurgical structure. The same specimen surfaces were used for assessment of the Vickers hardness. The results were statistically analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the bracket brand and bracket region (base, wing) serving as discriminating variables, whilst further group differences were investigated with Tukey's multiple comparison test at the alpha = 0.05 level of significance.
Metallographic imaging revealed that the Orthos2 brackets (Ormco, Glendora, CA, USA) consist of two parts joined together by laser welding, with large gaps along the base wing interface, whereas Rematitan brackets (Dentaurum, Ispringen, Germany) are single-piece appliances. Ti was the only element identified in Rematitan and Orthos2 base materials, while aluminium (Al) and vanadium (V) were also found in the Orthos2 wing component. Metallographic analysis showed the presence of a + b phase for Orthos2 and plate-like grains for Rematitan. The results of the Vickers hardness testing were: Orthos2 (wing): 371 +/- 22, Rematitan (wing): 272 +/- 4, Rematitan (base): 271 +/- 16, Orthos2 (base): 165 +/- 2.
The findings of the present study suggest that there are significant differences in composition, microstructure and hardness between the two commercial types of Ti brackets tested; the clinical implications of the findings are discussed.
- SourceAvailable from: Spiros ZinelisRecent Patents on Materials Science 01/2010; 1(2):135-139.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this 2-part opinion article was to project the developments expected to occur in the next few years in orthodontic materials research and applications. Part 1 reviewed developments in bonding to enamel. Part 2 looks at other orthodontic materials applications and explores emerging research strategies for probing the biological properties of materials. In the field of metallic brackets, expansion of the use of titanium alloys with improved hardness and nickel-free steels with better corrosion resistance and increased hardness is expected. Manufacturing techniques might be modified to include laser-welding methods and metal injection molding. Esthetic bracket research will involve the synthesis of high-crystallinity biomedical polymers with increased hardness and stiffness, decreased water sorption, and improved resistance to degradation. New plastic brackets might incorportate ceramic wings. Fiber-reinforced composite archwires, currently experimental, could soon be commercially available, and long-term applications of shape-memory plastics might become viable. Advancements in elastomeric materials will result in polymers with reduced relaxation, broader use of fluoride-releasing elastomers with decreased relaxation, and large-scale film coating of elastomers to decrease reactivity, water sorption, and degradation. Finally, biocompatibility assessments will incorporate testing of potential endocrinological action. New polymer formulations might be tested in adhesive and plastic bracket manufacturing, based on benzoic ring-free monomers to avoid the adverse effects of the estrogenic molecule bisphenol-A.American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics 03/2007; 131(2):253-62. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fluoride ions, in long-term applications on titanium brackets, cause their corrosion. Fluoride gel used for caries prevention during orthodontic treatment has a very high concentration in fluoride ions, and therefore has the potential for causing bracket corrosion. The main aim of this study was to determine the effect of eliminating the residual fluoride gel, by rinsing it, on the corrosion of titanium brackets. The secondary aim was to evaluate the corrosion of titanium brackets in the presence of fluoride gel. One hundred titanium brackets were divided into five groups of 20 brackets each. Group 1 being the control group, the rest of the groups were immersed in fluoride gel: Group 2 for 4 minutes and kept for 30 minutes with the residual fluoride gel on; Group 3 for 4 minutes followed by immediate water rinsing; Group 4 for 12 minutes and kept for 90 minutes with the residual fluoride gel on and Group 5 for 12 minutes followed by immediate water rinsing. All groups were rinsed then dried, for 20 hours, using Silica gel in a desiccator maintained at 37°C before testing. Gravimetrical results and SEM analysis showed no significant difference between Groups 2, 3 and 5 compared to each other and to the control group. Only Group 4 showed significant weight loss and pitting corrosion in four of the 20 brackets. In sliding resistance, no significant difference was detected between any of the groups. Short time applications of fluoride gel do not affect sliding resistance of titanium brackets. No titanium corrosion was detected for one application of concentrated fluoride gel and some brackets showed pitting corrosion for three applications. The rinsing of residual fluoride gel eliminates completely the risk of bracket corrosion.International Orthodontics 09/2011; 9(3):298-315.