Metallographic structure and hardness of titanium orthodontic brackets.
ABSTRACT To determine the elemental composition, microstructure, and hardness of two different brands of titanium (Ti) orthodontic brackets.
Four specimens of each brand were embedded in epoxy resin and, after metallographic grinding and polishing, were studied under a metallographic microscope. The bonding base morphology of each bracket was studied in as-received brackets by scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis (EDS) was used on polished specimens to assess the elemental composition of base and wing bracket components, and the brackets were subjected to metallographic etching to reveal the metallurgical structure. The same specimen surfaces were used for assessment of the Vickers hardness. The results were statistically analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the bracket brand and bracket region (base, wing) serving as discriminating variables, whilst further group differences were investigated with Tukey's multiple comparison test at the alpha = 0.05 level of significance.
Metallographic imaging revealed that the Orthos2 brackets (Ormco, Glendora, CA, USA) consist of two parts joined together by laser welding, with large gaps along the base wing interface, whereas Rematitan brackets (Dentaurum, Ispringen, Germany) are single-piece appliances. Ti was the only element identified in Rematitan and Orthos2 base materials, while aluminium (Al) and vanadium (V) were also found in the Orthos2 wing component. Metallographic analysis showed the presence of a + b phase for Orthos2 and plate-like grains for Rematitan. The results of the Vickers hardness testing were: Orthos2 (wing): 371 +/- 22, Rematitan (wing): 272 +/- 4, Rematitan (base): 271 +/- 16, Orthos2 (base): 165 +/- 2.
The findings of the present study suggest that there are significant differences in composition, microstructure and hardness between the two commercial types of Ti brackets tested; the clinical implications of the findings are discussed.
- SourceAvailable from: Spiros ZinelisRecent Patents on Materials Science 01/2010; 1(2):135-139.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the composition, morphology, bulk structure and ionic release of two brands of titanium orthodontic brackets: Orthos2 (Ormco, USA) and Rematitan (Dentaurum, Germany). Five specimens of each group were examined with computerized X-ray microtomography, to reveal the morphology and structure of brackets, whilst resin-embedded and metallographically polished specimens were subjected to SEM/EDS analysis and Vickers microhardness measurements. Brackets were also maintained in 0.9% saline for 2 months and the ionic release in the immersion medium was determined with Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. The results of the hardness and ionic release measurements were statistically analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha = 0.05). Orthos2 brackets consisted of two parts, the base (commercially pure Ti grade II) and the wing (Ti-6Al-4V alloy), joined together by laser welding, producing large gaps along the base-wing interface. The base was of lower hardness (Hv = 145), than the wing (Hv = 392) and incorporated a standard foil base-mesh pad. Rematitan brackets consisted of commercially pure Ti grade IV, with a single-piece manufacturing pattern of virtually identical hardness (p > 0.05) at the base and wings, featuring a laser-etched base-mesh pad. The hardness of the Rematitan brackets was significantly lower than the hardness of the Orthos2 wings, but double the hardness of the Orthos2 base. Released Ti levels were below the threshold level (1 ng/ml) of analysis for both materials, whilst traces of Al (3 ppm) and V (2 ppm) were found in the immersion media for Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The structural and hardness differences found may influence the torque transfer characteristics from activated archwires to the brackets and the crevice corrosion potential at the base-wing interface (Orthos2). The detection of Al and V in the immersion medium (Orthos2) may imply a different biological response from the two types of Ti brackets.Dental Materials 10/2004; 20(7):693-700. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fluoride ions, in long-term applications on titanium brackets, cause their corrosion. Fluoride gel used for caries prevention during orthodontic treatment has a very high concentration in fluoride ions, and therefore has the potential for causing bracket corrosion. The main aim of this study was to determine the effect of eliminating the residual fluoride gel, by rinsing it, on the corrosion of titanium brackets. The secondary aim was to evaluate the corrosion of titanium brackets in the presence of fluoride gel. One hundred titanium brackets were divided into five groups of 20 brackets each. Group 1 being the control group, the rest of the groups were immersed in fluoride gel: Group 2 for 4 minutes and kept for 30 minutes with the residual fluoride gel on; Group 3 for 4 minutes followed by immediate water rinsing; Group 4 for 12 minutes and kept for 90 minutes with the residual fluoride gel on and Group 5 for 12 minutes followed by immediate water rinsing. All groups were rinsed then dried, for 20 hours, using Silica gel in a desiccator maintained at 37°C before testing. Gravimetrical results and SEM analysis showed no significant difference between Groups 2, 3 and 5 compared to each other and to the control group. Only Group 4 showed significant weight loss and pitting corrosion in four of the 20 brackets. In sliding resistance, no significant difference was detected between any of the groups. Short time applications of fluoride gel do not affect sliding resistance of titanium brackets. No titanium corrosion was detected for one application of concentrated fluoride gel and some brackets showed pitting corrosion for three applications. The rinsing of residual fluoride gel eliminates completely the risk of bracket corrosion.International Orthodontics 09/2011; 9(3):298-315.