Leishmaniasis and Poverty

Communicable Diseases, Neglected Tropical Diseases Control, World Health Organization, 20 Ave Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
Trends in Parasitology (Impact Factor: 6.2). 01/2007; 22(12):552-7. DOI: 10.1016/
Source: PubMed


Leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease, has strong but complex links with poverty. The burden of leishmaniasis falls disproportionately on the poorest segments of the global population. Within endemic areas, increased infection risk is mediated through poor housing conditions and environmental sanitation, lack of personal protective measures and economically driven migration and employment that bring nonimmune hosts into contact with infected sand flies. Poverty is associated with poor nutrition and other infectious diseases, which increase the risk that a person (once infected) will progress to the clinically manifested disease. Lack of healthcare access causes delays in appropriate diagnosis and treatment and accentuates leishmaniasis morbidity and mortality, particularly in women. Leishmaniasis diagnosis and treatment are expensive and families must sell assets and take loans to pay for care, leading to further impoverishment and reinforcement of the vicious cycle of disease and poverty. Public investment in treatment and control would decrease the leishmaniasis disease burden and help to alleviate poverty.

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    • "It is endemic in the tropics and in the Mediterranean, being spread by 98 countries in four continents with a total of 12 million infected people and 350 million at risk of infection. It is estimated that approximately 0.2 to 0.4 million of new VL cases and 0.7 to 1.2 million of new NVL cases occur each year worldwide [1] [4] [5]. From 2005 to 2009, a total of 96,351 cases of NVL and 13,563 cases of VL were registered in Brazil [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease that is endemic in tropical areas and in the Mediterranean. This condition spreads to 98 countries in four continents, surpassing 12 million infected individuals, with 350 million people at risk of infection. This disease is characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical syndromes, caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, with various animal reservoirs, such as rodents, dogs, wolves, foxes, and even humans. Transmission occurs through a vector, a sandfly of the genus Lutzomyia. There are three main clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The wide spectrum of nonvisceral forms includes: localized cutaneous leishmaniasis, a papular lesion that progresses to ulceration with granular base and a large framed board; diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis; mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, which can cause disfiguring and mutilating injuries of the nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Leishmaniasis/HIV coinfection is considered an emerging problem in several countries, including Brazil, where, despite the growing number of cases, a problem of late diagnosis occurs. Clinically, the cases of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection may demonstrate unusual aspects, such as extensive and destructive lesions.This study aims to report a case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis/HIV coinfection with atypical presentation of diffuse desquamative eruption and nasopharyngeal involvement.
    12/2014; Volume 2014(Article ID 293761):5 pages. DOI:10.1155/2014/293761
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    • "Leishmaniasis is one of the most important vector borne diseases of humans, infecting people in 88 countries. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe disease, usually fatal, if untreated (Alvar et al., 2006); about 500,000 new cases each year are estimated, and causing 59,000 deaths worldwide (Desjeux, 2004; Poché et al., 2011). Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused either by L. infantum or L. donovani (WHO, 2000). "
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    ABSTRACT: Shaibi, T This study was carried out in two endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis (Batta and Mirrad Massoud) which are located on the plateau of Al-Jabel Akhdar, Libya. Sandflies were collected using sticky traps over a period of eight months from April till November 2008. A total number of 1584 sandflies were collected consisting Phlebotomus longicuspis (1552= 97.98%) and Sergentomyia spp (32= 2.02%). The seasonal abundance of P. longicuspis showed one peak in August and it was the only Phlebotomus spp found in these areas. This enhances the evidence of its role as the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in these foci. Further detailed studies are indicated to investigate the bionomics of this species in relation to visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the region.
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    • "In some cases, pentamidine as well as amphotericin B are used as second line treatment which may also have lethal affects [6] [7] [8]. There is a need to develop novel drugs to counter leishmaniasis due to the existence of various hazards which include high cost of current medicines [9] [10] along with their possible toxic effects [11] and resistance development in parasites [12]. Because of these problems, scientists "
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    ABSTRACT: Leishmaniasis is an important parasitic problem and is in focus for development of new drugs all over the world. Objective of the present study was to evaluate phytochemical, toxicity, and antileishmanial potential of Jurinea dolomiaea, Asparagus gracilis, Sida cordata, and Stellaria media collected from different areas of Pakistan. Dry powder of plants was extracted with crude methanol and fractionated with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water solvents in escalating polarity order. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of different class of compounds, that is, alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, phenolics, and tannins, was tested. Its appearance was observed varying with polarity of solvent used for fractionation. Antileishmanial activity was performed against Leishmania tropica KWH23 promastigote. Potent antileishmanial activity was observed for J. dolomiaea methanol extract (IC50 = 10.9 ± 1.1 μ g/mL) in comparison to other plant extracts. However, J. dolomiaea "ethyl acetate fraction" was more active (IC50 = 5.3 ± 0.2 μ g/mL) against Leishmania tropica KWH23 among all plant fractions as well as standard Glucantime drug (6.0 ± 0.1 μ g/mL). All the plants extract and its derived fraction exhibited toxicity in safety range (LC50 > 100) in brine shrimp toxicity evaluation assay.
    BioMed Research International 05/2014; 2014. DOI:10.1155/2014/384204 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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