Assessing the total costs of blood delivery to hospital oncology and haematology patients.
ABSTRACT To determine direct costs associated with a blood transfusion session in two hospital settings.
The study was conducted in two United Kingdom hospital sites during April 2004. Transfusion sessions for patients receiving units of red blood cells within either haematology or oncology departments were followed using time and motion techniques to measure the direct costs. Other data were collected from the centres to calculate the cost of disposables, blood wastage and blood bank machines.
Total mean staff cost per transfusion of 2 units was 37.24 pounds sterling (9.68 pounds sterling for blood bank and 27.56 pounds sterling for ward procedures). The mean cost of disposables was 13.25 pounds sterling and the mean cost for blood products was 287.56 pounds sterling. The mean cost of wastage was 11.86 pounds sterling per transfusion. After including other derived costs, such as hospital stay, the mean cost for a transfusion of 2 units of blood was estimated to be 546.12 pounds sterling.
This study estimates the cost of an average blood transfusion of 2 units to be 546.12 pounds sterling. It should be noted that significant indirect costs, such as those incurred by patients, their carers and societal costs, have not been considered. Against the background of finite blood resources and other factors such as patient quality of life, blood transfusion may not represent the best choice for patient care. Alternative treatments should be considered.
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ABSTRACT: Studies assessing fibrin sealants use during total knee replacement (TKR) have produced inconsistent results. We evaluated fibrin sealant therapy in TKR procedures performed without tourniquet and without postoperative drains. Use of a fibrin sealant during TKR decreases calculated total blood loss, thereby diminishing blood transfusion requirements and costs. We studied 62 patients with primary knee osteoarthritis who underwent TKR by the same surgeon between September 2009 and December 2010. Fibrin sealant was used only in the last 31 patients, who were compared to the first 31 patients regarding calculated total blood loss, blood transfusion rate, and mean number of red-blood-cell units used per patient. Costs were compared in the two groups. In the control group, mean total blood loss calculated using the method of Gross was 1.3±0.6 L, 48% of patients required blood transfusions, and the mean number of units per patient was 0.9±1. In the fibrin-sealant group, 29% of patients required blood transfusions and the mean number of units was 0.6±0.9. The between-group differences in favour of the fibrin-sealant group were not statistically significant. In each group, compared with patients not requiring blood transfusions, patients needing transfusions had significantly lower starting preoperative haemoglobin values and a significantly greater positive difference between the calculated total blood loss and the maximum allowable blood loss. In the test group, the cost of the 31 units of fibrin sealant was 9743€ and the cost reduction due to using 11 fewer red-blood-cell units was only 3484€. Hospital stay was not significantly shorter in any of the two groups. Blood transfusion minimisation during TKR should rely chiefly on correcting preoperative anaemia and optimizing transfusion decisions based on the difference between the total blood loss and the maximum allowable blood loss. Fibrin sealant did not significantly diminish transfusion requirements in our study. Randomised studies in larger patient populations are needed. The cost of fibrin sealant may exceed the expected cost savings in relation with decreased blood transfusion requirements. Level III (before-after therapeutic study).Orthopaedics & Traumatology Surgery & Research 03/2012; 98(2):180-5. · 1.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents can reduce red blood cell transfusion rates in patients developing anemia while receiving chemotherapy. We investigated potential cost savings from reduced transfusion rates in patients starting darbepoetin alfa (DA) at higher versus lower hemoglobin (Hb) levels. METHODS: Two systematic literature reviews were performed: transfusion outcomes in patients receiving DA stratified by baseline Hb level and costs of transfusion in Europe. Potential cost savings were calculated by multiplying the difference in transfusion rates between Hb levels by the midpoint of transfusion costs. RESULTS: Despite differences in baseline characteristics, treatment duration and analysis technique, the clinical studies (n = 8) showed that fewer transfusions were required when DA was initiated at higher versus lower Hb levels. The economic studies (n = 9) showed that 1 unit of transfusion ranged from 130 to 537 (2010-adjusted values). Cost savings from initiating DA at higher versus lower Hb levels were 503-2,226 (2 units transfused) and 880-3,895 (3.5 units) per ten patients. CONCLUSIONS: Transfusion incidence increases with DA initiation at lower Hb levels. Potential cost savings depend on the number of units transfused and cost items included. DA initiation according to guidelines can reduce transfusions and potentially reduce transfusion-associated costs.Supportive Care in Cancer 07/2012; · 2.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Blood is a costly and scarce resource. We report on a systematic review of the literature to estimate the cost of a 2-unit red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in Western Europe. Medline was searched for studies about the cost of RBC transfusion in Europe. Data extracted included authors, country, year of data, cost perspective, cost types, cost elements, units examined, study design, study population, and cost of a 2-unit blood transfusion. The population-weighted mean cost per 2 units of transfused blood was calculated. Six studies met inclusion and exclusion criteria and reported data from the United Kingdom, Sweden, Switzerland, Austria, and France. Methodology used to derive cost estimates differed across the studies. The population-weighted mean cost of transfusing 2 units of blood was €877.69. The estimated cost of transfusing 2 units of RBCs in Western Europe is significant. Differences in methodology were partially diffused by aggregation of prior estimates into a population-weighted mean. Future cost studies should follow the Cost of Blood Consensus Conference (COBCON) recommendation to apply activity-based costing methods.Transfusion 02/2012; 52(9):1983-8. · 3.53 Impact Factor