Infections of the central nervous system by melanized fungi: A review of cases presented between 1999 and 2004

Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
Mycoses (Impact Factor: 2.24). 03/2004; 47(1-2):4-13. DOI: 10.1046/j.1439-0507.2003.00956.x
Source: PubMed


Several types of infections of the central nervous system by melanized fungi can be distinguished: (a) single-organ infection of the cerebrum, (b) extension into the cerebrum from adjacent cavities, (c) fungal presence in the cerebrospinal fluid, or (d) meningitis. The fungal order Chaetothyriales (containing Exophiala-like black yeasts and relatives) is particularly rich in fungi causing cerebral infections. Cases by the main agents, Cladophialophora bantiana, Exophiala dermatitidis, and Ramichloridium mackenziei, published during the last 5 years are reviewed. Most of these infections prove to be fatal. Resection of the lesions in combination with antimycotic therapy may reduce mortality.
Mehrere Formen von Infektionen des Zentralnervensystems können unterschieden werden: (1) Infektionen limitiert auf das Cerebrum, (2) Ausdehnung der Infektion von anliegenden Höhlen ins Gehirn, (3) Befall der cerebrospinalen Flüssigkeit, oder (4) Meningitis. Die Ordnung der Chaetothyriales (die Exophiala-ähnliche schwarze Hefen und Verwandte enthält) sind unter den Verursachern zerebraler Infektionen überdurchschnittlich vertreten. Zu den wichtigsten infektionsverursachenden Arten gehören Cladophialophora bantiana, Exophiala dermatitidis und Ramichloridium mackenziei. Eine Übersicht von Infektionen verursacht von diesen Arten und in den letzten fünf Jahren veröffentlicht, wird präsentiert. Die meisten dieser Infektionen verliefen tödlich. Das Entfernen der Läsionen, kombiniert mit antimykotischer Therapie kann die Mortalität verringern.

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