Three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI): what is the correct prescription dose?
ABSTRACT This study is an evaluation of the biologic equivalence of the dose prescriptions for brachytherapy and 3-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT) accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI), using actual patient dose matrix data, and is based on the concept of equivalent uniform biologically effective dose (EUBED). This formalism allows a nonuniform dose distribution to be reduced to an equivalent uniform dose, while also accounting for fraction size.
Five computed tomography scans were selected from a group of patients treated with multicatheter interstitial APBI. Dose matrices for the brachytherapy plans were computed and analyzed with in-house software. For each patient, the EUBED for the brachytherapy dose matrix was generated based on calculations performed at the voxel-level. These EUBED values were then used to calculate the biologically equivalent fraction size for 3D-CRT (eud).
The mean equivalent fraction size (eudmean) and maximum equivalent fraction size (eudmax) were calculated for each patient using 100 different values of the alpha/beta ratio. The eudmean ranged from 3.67 to 3.69 Gy, while the eudmax ranged from 3.79 to 3.82 Gy. For all values of the alpha/beta ratio, the maximum fraction size calculated to deliver a biologically equivalent dose with 3D-CRT was 3.82 Gy, with an equivalent total prescription dose of 38.2 Gy.
Utilizing a wide range of established radiobiological parameters, this study suggests that the maximum fraction size needed to deliver a biologically equivalent dose using 3D-CRT is 3.82 Gy, supporting the continued use of 3.85Gy BID in the current national cooperative trial.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To explore the feasibility of a short course of hypofractionated conformal radiation therapy to the tumor bed as part of a breast preservation protocol in postmenopausal patients with nonpalpable pT1N0 stage breast cancer. The tumor bed was imaged at computed tomography (CT) in the prone position on a dedicated table. The same table and position were used for treatment with a 4-MV linear accelerator. The planning target volume was the tumor bed plus a 1-2-cm margin defined at postmastectomy CT. A regimen of five fractions was tested in this pilot dose study. Cosmesis was assessed by patients and physicians before treatment and 36 months after treatment. Ten consecutive patients who were eligible for the study were assigned to one of three dose-per-fraction regimens; nine were treatable with the proposed technique on the basis of CT findings. Patients received five fractions over 10 days (total dose range, 25-30 Gy): Three received 5.0 Gy per fraction; four, 5.5 Gy; and two, 6.0 Gy. At minimum follow-up of 36 months (range, 36-53 months), all patients were alive and disease free with good to excellent cosmesis. Hypofractionated conformal breast radiation therapy is feasible. Further studies are warranted.Radiology 02/2002; 222(1):171-8. · 6.34 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Clinical interest in the use of more and smaller dose fractions in radical radiotherapy has been stimulated by recent reviews of experimental results with normal tissues. It has been found that if the dose per fraction is reduced (i.e., in hyperfractionation) there is sparing of late responding normal tissues relative to those which respond early. This phenomenon can be understood in terms of the shapes of the underlying dose effect relationships, which can be described using the linear quadratic equation. The ratio (alpha/beta) of the linear (alpha) and quadratic (beta) terms is a useful measure of the curviness of such dose effect curves. Low alpha/beta values (1.5 to 5 Gy) have been observed for late responding normal tissues and indicate that radiation damage should be greatly spared by the use of dose fractions smaller than the 2 Gy used in conventional radiotherapy. By contrast the high alpha/beta values (6-14 Gy) observed for acutely responding normal tissues indicate that the response is relatively linear over the dose range of clinical interest. Hence less extra sparing effect is to be expected if lower doses per fraction are administered. If tumors respond in the same way as acutely responding normal tissues then hyperfractionation might confer a therapeutic gain relative to late responding normal tissues. We have reviewed published results for experimental tumors irradiated in situ and either assayed in situ or after excision. The alpha/beta ratios were usually at least as high as those for acutely responding normal tissues, and 36/48 tumors gave values greater than 8 Gy. Low values of less than 5 Gy were obtained for only 4/48 tumors. There are considerable technical problems in interpreting these experiments, but the results do suggest that hyperfractionation might confer therapeutic gain relative to late responding normal tissues on the basis of differences in repair capability. In clinical practice more efficient reoxygenation, cell cycle redistribution and decreased overall treatment time might also confer therapeutic gain.International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 02/1985; 11(1):87-96. · 4.52 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: With the continuing improvement in computer speed, dose distributions can be calculated quickly with confidence. However, the resulting biological effect is known with much less certainty, despite its critical importance when assessing treatment plans. To assess plans accurately, biologically based methods of ranking plans are necessary. Many authors have suggested the use of dose volume histograms with reduction schemes and Niemierko has recently introduced another method based on the cell kill occurring in the tumour. This study presents an investigation into this value and suggests a use in prescribing dose. Equivalent uniform dose (EUD) can obviously be used for assessing treatment plans, although in its current form it is not adequate for assessing normal tissues; however, it can also be used to adjust the prescription dose ensuring all plans deliver the same EUD to the tumour. Once this is performed, plans can more easily be assessed on the effects to the normal tissues. In calculating the EUD another concept is introduced--the equivalent uniform biologically effective dose (EUBED). This value considers the distribution of dose and dose per fraction when comparing plans. Reduced dose per fraction at the edge of the target volume will exacerbate the effect of reduced dose on cell kill. Two methods are suggested for calculating the necessary prescription dose: one using an iterative method and one using the gradient of the EUBED function. A comparison was made for a series of stereotactic cases using different collimator sizes. Interestingly, using this method, although the maximum doses were different, the dose volume histograms (DVHs) for the brainstem were similar in all cases.Physics in Medicine and Biology 02/2000; 45(1):159-70. · 2.70 Impact Factor