Estimation of Left Ventricular Mass by Real-Time Three-Dimensional Echocardiography Depends on Good Image Acquisition by Two-Dimensional Echocardiography

The American Journal of Cardiology (Impact Factor: 3.28). 11/2006; 98(8):1121-2. DOI: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2006.06.006
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    ABSTRACT: This is the first study to assess the feasibility and accuracy of real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (RT-3DE) for the measurements of left ventricular (LV) mass in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty patients (60% men) with CHD were evaluated by MRI and RT-3DE on the same day. Their mean age was 29 +/- 8 years (range 19 to 49). RT-3DE was performed with a Philips Sonos 7500 echocardiographic system and LV mass analyses with the assistance of TomTec software. The results for LV mass obtained by manual tracing were compared with Signa 1.5-T MRI data. The acquisition of RT-3DE data sets was feasible in all 20 patients. Nine patients (45%) had good, 5 patients (25%) moderate, and 6 patients (30%) poor image quality of the 3-dimensional data set. The time of 3-dimensional data acquisition was 4 +/- 2 minutes. Off-line image processing and tracing required approximately 11 +/- 3 minutes. A very good correlation was observed between RT-3DE data with sufficient image quality and MRI (r = 0.98, y = 0.96x + 4.1, SEE 9.8 g), with a mean difference of 2.0 +/- 20 g. Interobserver agreement was excellent (r = 0.99, y = 0.97x + 3.81), with a mean difference of -1 +/- 11 g. In conclusion, the assessment of LV mass from RT-3DE data is feasible in patients with CHD. The mass of an abnormally shaped left ventricle can be determined with high accuracy and low interobserver variability in patients with good or moderate echocardiographic image quality.
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    ABSTRACT: Left ventricular (LV) mass is an important predictor of morbidity and mortality, especially in patients with systemic hypertension. However, the accuracy of 2D echocardiographic LV mass measurements is limited because acquiring anatomically correct apical views is often difficult. We tested the hypothesis that LV mass could be measured more accurately from real-time 3D (RT3D) data sets, which allow offline selection of nonforeshortened apical views, by comparing 2D and RT3D measurements against cardiac MR (CMR) measurements. Echocardiographic imaging was performed (Philips 7500) in 21 patients referred for CMR imaging (1.5 T, GE). Apical 2- and 4-chamber views and RT3D data sets were acquired and analyzed by 2 independent observers. The RT3D data sets were used to select nonforeshortened apical 2- and 4-chamber views (3DQ-QLAB, Philips). In both 2D and RT3D images, LV long axis was measured; endocardial and epicardial boundaries were traced, and mass was calculated by use of the biplane method of disks. CMR LV mass values were obtained through standard techniques (MASS Analysis, GE). The RT3D data resulted in significantly larger LV long-axis dimensions and measurements of LV mass that correlated with CMR better (r=0.90) than 2D (r=0.79). The 2D technique underestimated LV mass (bias, 39%), whereas RT3D measurements showed only minimal bias (3%). The 95% limits of agreement were significantly wider for 2D (52%) than RT3D (28%). Additionally, the RT3D technique reduced the interobserver variability (37% to 7%) and intraobserver variability (19% to 8%). RT3D imaging provides the basis for accurate and reliable measurement of LV mass.
    Circulation 10/2004; 110(13):1814-8. · 14.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest stability of echocardiography for the measurement of left ventricular mass and function in patients with hypertension. Determination of changes in left ventricular mass may be impaired by study variability. The amount by which variables of mass and left ventricular function must change in an individual patient to exceed temporal variability has not been determined in a multicenter trial. Ninety-six patients with hypertension had two-dimensional targeted, M-mode Doppler echocardiography repeated at 6 +/- 8 days by the same technician utilizing the same machine. Left ventricular mass and variables of systolic and diastolic function were measured. Test-retest reliability and the width of the 95% confidence intervals of variable change, as well as the contributions of age, study quality and body size to measurement reliability, were determined. Despite excellent reliability (intraclass coefficient of correlation 0.86), the 95% confidence interval width of a single replicate measurement of left ventricular mass was 59g, exceeding usual decreases in mass during treatment. Study quality, which was dependent on age and weight, influenced test reliability. Although the confidence interval width for ejection fraction was narrow (5 U), those for peak early (E) and late (A) diastolic velocities were wide, resulting in a confidence interval width for the E/A ratio of 1.5. The temporal variability, particularly in obese or elderly patients, or both, of echocardiography for measurement of left ventricular mass precludes its use to measure changes in mass of the magnitude likely to occur with therapy. Measurement stability is affected by study quality, and age and body weight both influence study quality. Although ejection fraction shows little temporal variability, the large width of the confidence interval of the Doppler E/A ratio impairs its use to serially measure diastolic function.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 03/1995; 25(2):424-30. DOI:10.1016/0735-1097(94)00375-Z · 16.50 Impact Factor