Norfloxacin vs ceftriaxone in the prophylaxis of infections in patients with advanced cirrhosis and hemorrhage

IMDM and IDIBAPS, Liver Unit, Hospital Clínic, University of Barcelona, Villaroel 170, 08036 Barcelona, Spain.
Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 13.93). 10/2006; 131(4):1049-56; quiz 1285. DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2006.07.010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Oral norfloxacin is the standard of therapy in the prophylaxis of bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. However, during the last years, the epidemiology of bacterial infections in cirrhosis has changed, with a higher incidence of infections caused by quinolone-resistant bacteria. This randomized controlled trial was aimed to compare oral norfloxacin vs intravenous ceftriaxone in the prophylaxis of bacterial infection in cirrhotic patients with gastrointestinal bleeding.
One hundred eleven patients with advanced cirrhosis (at least 2 of the following: ascites, severe malnutrition, encephalopathy, or bilirubin >3 mg/dL) and gastrointestinal hemorrhage were randomly treated with oral norfloxacin (400 mg twice daily; n = 57) or intravenous ceftriaxone (1 g/day; n = 54) for 7 days. The end point of the trial was the prevention of bacterial infections within 10 days after inclusion.
Clinical data were comparable between groups. The probability of developing proved or possible infections, proved infections, and spontaneous bacteremia or spontaneous bacterial peritonitis was significantly higher in patients receiving norfloxacin (33% vs 11%, P = .003; 26% vs 11%, P = .03; and 12% vs 2%, P = .03, respectively). The type of antibiotic used (norfloxacin), transfusion requirements at inclusion, and failure to control bleeding were independent predictors of infection. Seven gram-negative bacilli were isolated in the norfloxacin group, and 6 were quinolone resistant. Non-enterococcal streptococci were only isolated in the norfloxacin group. No difference in hospital mortality was observed between groups.
Intravenous ceftriaxone is more effective than oral norfloxacin in the prophylaxis of bacterial infections in patients with advanced cirrhosis and hemorrhage.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gut microbiota plays an important role in cirrhosis. The liver is constantly challenged with commensal bacteria and their products arriving through the portal vein in the so-called gut-liver axis. Bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen through the intestinal wall and to mesenteric lymph nodes is facilitated by intestinal bacterial overgrowth, impairment in the permeability of the intestinal mucosal barrier, and deficiencies in local host immune defences. Deranged clearance of endogenous bacteria from portal and systemic circulation turns the gut into the major source of bacterial-related complications. Liver function may therefore be affected by alterations in the composition of the intestinal microbiota and a role for commensal flora has been evidenced in the pathogenesis of several complications arising in end-stage liver disease such as hepatic encephalopathy, splanchnic arterial vasodilatation and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. The use of antibiotics is the main therapeutic pipeline in the management of these bacteria-related complications. However, other strategies aimed at preserving intestinal homeostasis through the use of pre-, pro- or symbiotic formulations are being studied in the last years. In this review, the role of intestinal microbiota in the development of the most frequent complications arising in cirrhosis and the different clinical and experimental studies conducted to prevent or improve these complications by modifying the gut microbiota composition are summarized.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cirrhosis affects millions of people throughout the world. Two of the most serious complications of liver cirrhosis are ascites and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). The development of ascites is related to the severity of portal hypertension and is an indicator of increased mortality. Although sodium restriction and diuretic therapy have proven effective, some patients may not respond appropriately or develop adverse reactions to diuretic therapy. In such cases, interventions such as transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement are warranted. SBP is a complication of ascites that confers a very high mortality rate. Recognition and prompt treatment of this condition is essential to prevent serious morbidity and mortality. Initiation of prophylaxis in SBP remains controversial. Given the burden of liver cirrhosis on the health care system, ascites and SBP will continue to provide challenges for the primary care provider, hospitalist, internist, and gastroenterologist alike.
    Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2014; 20(5):279-287. DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.141686 · 1.22 Impact Factor
  • Hepatology International 09/2014; 8(S2):467-474. DOI:10.1007/s12072-014-9522-z · 2.47 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 21, 2014