Article

Nitric oxide production in the basal forebrain is required for recovery sleep.

Department of Physiology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
Journal of Neurochemistry (Impact Factor: 4.24). 11/2006; 99(2):483-98. DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.04077.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Sleep homeostasis is the process by which recovery sleep is generated by prolonged wakefulness. The molecular mechanisms underlying this important phenomenon are poorly understood. Here, we assessed the role of the intercellular gaseous signaling agent NO in sleep homeostasis. We measured the concentration of nitrite and nitrate, indicative of NO production, in the basal forebrain (BF) of rats during sleep deprivation (SD), and found the level increased by 100 +/- 51%. To test whether an increase in NO production might play a causal role in recovery sleep, we administered compounds into the BF that increase or decrease concentrations of NO. Infusion of either a NO scavenger, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide, or a NO synthase inhibitor, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), completely abolished non-rapid eye movement (NREM) recovery sleep. Infusion of a NO donor, (Z)-1-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2diolate (DETA/NO), produced an increase in NREM that closely resembled NREM recovery after prolonged wakefulness. The effects of inhibition of NO synthesis and the pharmacological induction of sleep were effective only in the BF area. Indicators of energy metabolism, adenosine, lactate and pyruvate increased during prolonged wakefulness and DETA/NO infusion, whereas L-NAME infusion during SD prevented the increases. We conclude that an increase in NO production in the BF is a causal event in the induction of recovery sleep.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Paul A Rosenberg, Dec 26, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
65 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sleep, which is evolutionarily conserved across species, is a biological imperative that cannot be ignored or replaced. However, the percentage of habitually sleep-restricted adults has increased in recent decades. Extended work hours and commutes, shift work schedules, and television viewing are particularly potent social factors that influence sleep duration. Chronic partial sleep restriction, a product of these social expediencies, leads to the accumulation of sleep debt over time and consequently increases sleep propensity, decreases alertness, and impairs critical aspects of cognitive functioning. Significant interindividual variability in the neurobehavioral responses to sleep restriction exists-this variability is stable and phenotypic-suggesting a genetic basis. Identifying vulnerability to sleep loss is essential as many adults cannot accurately judge their level of impairment in response to sleep restriction. Indeed, the consequences of impaired performance and the lack of insight due to sleep loss can be catastrophic. In order to cope with the effects of social expediencies on biological imperatives, identification of biological (including genetic) and behavioral markers of sleep loss vulnerability as well as development of technological approaches for fatigue management are critical.
    Progress in brain research 01/2012; 199:377-98. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-444-59427-3.00021-6 · 5.10 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The basal forebrain (BF) is an important mediator of cortical arousal, which is innervated by all ascending arousal systems. During sleep deprivation (SD) a site-specific accumulation of sleep factors in the BF results in increased sleep pressure (Kalinchuk et al., 2006; Porkka-Heiskanen et al., 1997; Porkka-Heiskanen et al., 2000). However, animals are able to stay awake and even increase their neuronal activity in the BF and cortex during SD, suggesting increased activity of the ascending arousal systems to counteract the effect of sleep pressure. This study used in vivo microdialysis to measure the effect of a 6h SD, by "gentle handling" in freely moving rats, on the extracellular levels of serotonin and dopamine metabolites (5-HIAA, and DOPAC and HVA respectively) in the BF. Additionally, because glucocorticoids can interact with monoaminergic neurotransmission, and SD could be stressful, corticosterone levels were measured. We found an increase in extracellular serotonin and dopamine metabolite levels (n=8, p≤0.05). No interaction between corticosterone and the monoaminergic systems was apparent. Extracellular corticosterone levels showed no increase during the first 3h of SD, and the subsequent increase (n=8, p≤0.05) did not result in values exceeding the normal diurnal maximum, indicating that no substantial stress was induced. The results demonstrate that SD increases extracellular dopamine and serotonin metabolites in the BF, suggesting increased activity of the ascending arousal systems. It remains to be investigated what the specific roles of the dopaminergic and serotonergic ascending arousal systems are in BF-mediated cortical arousal.
    Brain research 07/2011; 1399:40-8. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2011.05.008 · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Both adenosine and nitric oxide (NO) are known for their role in sleep homeostasis, with the basal forebrain (BF) wakefulness center as an important site of action. Previously, we reported a cascade of homeostatic events, wherein sleep deprivation (SD) induces the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-dependent NO in BF, leading to enhanced release of extracellular adenosine. In turn, increased BF adenosine leads to enhanced sleep intensity, as measured by increased non-rapid eye movement sleep EEG delta activity. However, the presence and time course of similar events in cortex has not been studied, although a frontal cortical role for the increase in non-rapid eye movement recovery sleep EEG delta power is known. Accordingly, we performed simultaneous hourly microdialysis sample collection from BF and frontal cortex (FC) during 11 h SD. We observed that both areas showed sequential increases in iNOS and NO, followed by increases in adenosine. BF increases began at 1 h SD, whereas FC increases began at 5 h SD. iNOS and Fos-double labeling indicated that iNOS induction occurred in BF and FC wake-active neurons. These data support the role of BF adenosine and NO in sleep homeostasis and indicate the temporal and spatial sequence of sleep homeostatic cascade for NO and adenosine.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 11/2010; 116(2):260-72. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2010.07100.x · 4.24 Impact Factor