To examine the safety and efficacy of a chitosan dietary supplement on body composition under free-living conditions.
In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled dietary intervention protocol, subjects were assigned to a treatment group (TRT), a placebo group (PLA) and a control group (CTL).
A total of 150 overweight adults enrolled; 134 (89.3%) completed the study; 111 (82.8%) were women who were similarly distributed in the three groups.
The TRT group took six 500 mg chitosan capsules per day and both TRT and PLA groups wore pedometers during their waking hours and recorded daily step totals. The CTL group followed weight loss programs of their choice, and took the same baseline and ending tests.
Outcome measures were Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry tests, fasting blood chemistries, and self-reported daily activity levels and caloric intakes.
Compared to CTL, the TRT group lost more weight (-2.8 lbs vs. +0.8 lbs, p < 0.001) and fat mass (-2.6 lbs vs. +0.1 lbs, p = 0.006). Compared to PLA, the TRT group lost more weight (-2.8 lbs. vs. -0.6 lbs, p = 0.03), % fat (-0.8% vs. +0.4%, p = 0.003), fat mass (-2.6 lbs vs. +0.6 lbs, p = 0.001) and had a greater body composition improvement index (BCI) (+2.4 lbs vs. -1.9 lbs, p = 0.002).
These data provide evidence for the efficacy of a chitosan compound to facilitate the depletion of excess body fat under free-living conditions with minimal loss of fat-free or lean body mass.
"For example, chitin/chitosan mixtures increase fat excretion in the feces of experimental animals resulting in reduction in body weight . However, the effects of these carbohydrates are said to be controversial in humans         . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is a global epidemic and one of the major health burdens of modern times. The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide; it constitutes a serious problem in developed as well as developing countries. Beside adults, the number of obese teenagers and children in particular has dramatically increased. Obesity is characterized by accumulation of excess fat in adipose tissues in an extent to produce adverse effects on health, leading to a reduction in life expectancy and/or a raise in health hazards. People are classified as overweight (pre-obese) and obese on the basis of the Body Mass Index (BMI), crude measure which compares weight to height. Obesity is usually associated with and can lead to many disease conditions, mainly type-2 diabetes, cardiac diseases, hypertension, sleep apnea, cerebrovascular incidents, osteoarthritis and certain types of cancers. The tremendously increasing number of reviews on the subject of obesity obviously reflects the amount of investigations currently dedicated to this field. The core of obesity treatment is dieting and physical exercise. The consumption of energy-dense food is reduced versus an increase in that of dietary fibers. Conventional medication relies mainly on drugs which either reduce appetite or inhibit fat absorption. However, drug treatment of obesity despite short-term benefits, is often associated with undesirable harmful side effects, rebound weight gain after discontinuation of drug intake, and the incidence of drug abuse. If diet, exercise and pharmacological therapy are ineffective; surgical intervention may be useful. The anti-obesity potential of natural products if accurately explored might provide an excellent alternative strategy for the scientifically-based development of safe and effective drugs. Especially that, they are actually widespread for this purpose as nutritional supplements. OTC anti-obesity natural products are mostly complex in terms of chemical composition and may exert a variety of pharmacological actions leading to weight loss. These include: inhibition of lipases activity, suppression of appetite, stimulation of energy expenditure, inhibition of adipocyte differentiation and regulation of lipid metabolism. A variety of natural products, including crude extracts and isolated compounds induce body weight reduction and prevent diet-induced obesity. Examples of these constituents are polyphenols, triterpenoidal and steroidal saponins, pregnane glycosides, alkaloids, abietane diterpenes and carotenoids amongst others. In addition, a number of lipase inhibitors are obtained from microbial sources.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss.
Journal of obesity 01/2011; 2011(2090-0708). DOI:10.1155/2011/297315
"For example, when researchers fed experimental animals a high-fat diet containing 7–15% chitin/ chitosan, fat excretion in the feces increased, resulting in reduced body weights (Han et al., 2005a). However, the effects these carbohydrates have on body weight reduction in animals and humans are controversial (Bondiolotti et al., 2007; Gades and Stern, 2003, 2005; Gallaher et al., 2002; Han et al., 1999a; Hayashi and Ito, 2002; Ho et al., 2001; Kaats et al., 2006; Sumiyoshi and Kimura, 2006). We recently found a distinct body weight reduction in ob/ ob mice fed on chitosan oligosaccharides; proteome analysis of mouse plasma before and after these treatments suggested chitosan oligosaccharide's molecular actions (Kumar et al., 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with many diseases, particularly diabetes, hypertension, osteoarthritis, and heart disease. The obesity incidence has increased at an alarming rate in recent years, becoming a worldwide health problem, with incalculable social costs. Two different obesity-treatment drugs are currently on the market: orlistat, which reduces intestinal fat absorption via inhibiting pancreatic lipase; and sibutramine, an anorectic or appetite suppressant. Both drugs have hazardous side-effects, including increased blood pressure, dry mouth, constipation, headache, and insomnia. For this reason, a wide variety of natural materials have been explored for their obesity treatment potential. These are mainly complex products having several components with different chemical and pharmacological features. This review aimed to survey the literature covering natural products with anti-obesity activity and to review the scientific data, including experimental methodologies, active components, and mechanisms of action against obesity.
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