Epidemiology of peritoneal mesothelioma: a review

International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.
Annals of Oncology (Impact Factor: 6.58). 07/2007; 18(6):985-90. DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdl345
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The epidemiology of peritoneal mesothelioma is complicated by possible geographic and temporal variations in diagnostic practices. The incidence rates in industrialized countries range between 0.5 and three cases per million in men and between 0.2 and two cases per million in women. Exposure to asbestos is the main known cause of peritoneal mesothelioma. Results on peritoneal mesothelioma have been reported for 34 cohorts exposed to asbestos, among which a strong correlation was present between the percentages of deaths from pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma (correlation coefficient 0.8, P < 0.0001). Studies of workers exposed only or predominantly to chrysotile asbestos resulted in a lower proportion of total deaths from peritoneal mesothelioma than studies of workers exposed to amphibole or mixed type of asbestos. Cases of peritoneal mesothelioma have also been reported following exposure to erionite and Thorotrast, providing further evidence of common etiological factors with the pleural form of the disease. The role of other suspected risk factors, such as simian virus 40 infection and genetic predisposition, is unclear at present. Control of asbestos exposure remains the main approach to prevent peritoneal mesothelioma.

1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a neoplasm arising from mesothelial cells lining the pleural, peritoneal, and pericardial cavities. Over 20 million people in the US are at risk of developing MM due to asbestos exposure. MM mortality rates are estimated to increase by 5-10% per year in most industrialized countries until about 2020. The incidence of MM in men has continued to rise during the past 50 years, while the incidence in women appears largely unchanged. It is estimated that about 50-80% of pleural MM in men and 20-30% in women developed in individuals whose history indicates asbestos exposure(s) above that expected from most background settings. While rare for women, about 30% of peritoneal mesothelioma in men has been associated with exposure to asbestos. Erionite is a potent carcinogenic mineral fiber capable of causing both pleural and peritoneal MM. Since erionite is considerably less widespread than asbestos, the number of MM cases associated with erionite exposure is smaller. Asbestos induces DNA alterations mostly by inducing mesothelial cells and reactive macrophages to secrete mutagenic oxygen and nitrogen species. In addition, asbestos carcinogenesis is linked to the chronic inflammatory process caused by the deposition of a sufficient number of asbestos fibers and the consequent release of pro-inflammatory molecules, especially HMGB-1, the master switch that starts the inflammatory process, and TNF-alpha by macrophages and mesothelial cells. Genetic predisposition, radiation exposure and viral infection are co-factors that can alone or together with asbestos and erionite cause MM. J. Cell. Physiol. 227: 44-58, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 01/2012; 227(1):44-58. DOI:10.1002/jcp.22724 · 3.87 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The adverse pulmonary effects of asbestos are well accepted in scientific circles. However, the extrapulmonary consequences of asbestos exposure are not as clearly defined. In this review the potential for asbestos to produce diseases of the peritoneum, immune, gastrointestinal (GIT), and reproductive systems are explored as evidenced in published, peer-reviewed literature. Several hundred epidemiological, in vivo, and in vitro publications analyzing the extrapulmonary effects of asbestos were used as sources to arrive at the conclusions and to establish areas needing further study. In order to be considered, each study had to monitor extrapulmonary outcomes following exposure to asbestos. The literature supports a strong association between asbestos exposure and peritoneal neoplasms. Correlations between asbestos exposure and immune-related disease are less conclusive; nevertheless, it was concluded from the combined autoimmune studies that there is a possibility for a higher-than-expected risk of systemic autoimmune disease among asbestos-exposed populations. In general, the GIT effects of asbestos exposure appear to be minimal, with the most likely outcome being development of stomach cancer. However, IARC recently concluded the evidence to support asbestos-induced stomach cancer to be "limited." The strongest evidence for reproductive disease due to asbestos is in regard to ovarian cancer. Unfortunately, effects on fertility and the developing fetus are under-studied. The possibility of other asbestos-induced health effects does exist. These include brain-related tumors, blood disorders due to the mutagenic and hemolytic properties of asbestos, and peritoneal fibrosis. It is clear from the literature that the adverse properties of asbestos are not confined to the pulmonary system.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part B 05/2011; 14(1-4):122-52. DOI:10.1080/10937404.2011.556048 · 5.15 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The relationship between asbestos exposure and peritoneal mesothelioma (PEM) is under investigation. Some authors suggest that the association could be weaker than that observed for pleural mesothelioma (PLM). To compare individual, clinical and exposure characteristics of peritoneal and pleural mesothelioma cases that occurred in the Lombardy Region (Italy). Cases were drawn from the regional mesothelioma registry (base population > 9 million). We selected all PEM cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2007 (N = 110) and all PLM cases that occurred between 2000 and 2001 (N = 515). Asbestos exposure data (occupational, environmental/familial, or both) were collected by a standardized and validated questionnaire administered to each case or case's relative. Based on available chest CT scans, we also investigated the concomitant presence of asbestosis and/or pleural plaques as markers of asbestos exposure. PEM and PLM cases had similar proportions of occupational (around 60%) and environmental/familial (7%) asbestos exposure. The proportion of PEM subjects with co-existent occupational and environmental/familial exposures was, however, twice as high as PLM cases (6.1% vs 3.1%). Asbestosis and pleural plaques were more frequent in PEM than in PLM cases (7.7% and 20.9% vs 0.4% and 12.1%, respectively). No differences were detected for duration of exposure and latency among occupationally exposed cases. Our findings from a population-based Registry suggest that high cumulative asbestos exposures are the main risk factors not only for pleural but also for peritoneal mesothelioma.
    La Medicina del lavoro 102(5):409-16. · 0.48 Impact Factor