GSK-3 mediates differentiation and activation of proinflammatory dendritic cells.
ABSTRACT The key components of the intracellular molecular network required for the expression of a specific function of dendritic cells (DCs) are as yet undefined. Using an in vitro model of human monocyte-derived DC differentiation, this study investigates the role of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3), a multifunctional enzyme critical for cellular differentiation, apoptosis, self-renewal, and motility, in this context. We demonstrate that GSK-3 (1) inhibits macrophage development during differentiation of DCs, (2) is constitutively active in immature DCs and suppresses spontaneous maturation, and (3) acquires a proinflammatory functional status mediating high levels of IL-12, IL-6, and TNF-alpha secretion, and partially inhibits IL-10 in the context of DC activation. In particular, GSK-3 enhances IL-12p35 mRNA expression and thus the production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-12p70 by integrating the activities of other kinases priming GSK-3 targets and the inhibitory effects of Akt-1. GSK-3 may therefore act as a key integrator of activating and inhibitory pathways involved in proinflammatory DC differentiation and activation.
Article: Signaling mechanism of HIV-1 gp120 and virion-induced IL-1beta release in primary human macrophages.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 induces, independently of infection, the release of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1beta from macrophages, that are implicated in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia. However, the signal transduction pathways involved have not been fully defined. Previously, our laboratory reported that soluble gp120 activates multiple protein kinases in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages, including the Src family kinase Lyn, PI3K, and the focal adhesion-related proline-rich tyrosine kinase Pyk2. In this study we showed that gp120 induces IL-1beta release from macrophages in a time- and concentration-dependent manner through binding to the chemokine receptor CCR5 and coupling to G(i)alpha protein. Using pharmacological inhibitors and small interfering RNA gene knockdown, we demonstrated that concomitant activation of Lyn, Pyk2, and class IA PI3K are required for gp120-induced IL-1beta production. By coimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy, we showed that CCR5 activation by gp120 triggered the assembly of a signaling complex involving endogenous Lyn, PI3K, and Pyk2 and is associated with PI3K and Pyk2 translocation from the cytoplasm to the membrane where they colocalized with Lyn. Finally, we demonstrated that virion-associated gp120 induced similar response, as structurally intact whole virions also triggered IL-1beta release and re-localization of PI3K and Pyk2. This study identifies a novel signaling mechanism for HIV-1-induced IL-1beta production by primary human macrophages that may be involved in the neuropathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia.The Journal of Immunology 06/2008; 180(10):6675-84. · 5.79 Impact Factor
Article: Convergence of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1- and glycogen synthase kinase 3-β-signaling pathways regulates the innate inflammatory response.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The PI3K pathway and its regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) play pivotal roles in controlling inflammation. In this article, we show that mTORC1 and GSK3-β converge and that the capacity of mTORC1 to affect the inflammatory response is due to the inactivation of GSK3-β. Inhibition of mTORC1 attenuated GSK3 phosphorylation and increased its kinase activity. Immunoprecipitation and in vitro kinase assays demonstrated that GSK3-β associated with a downstream target of mTORC1, p85S6K, and phosphorylated GSK3-β. Inhibition of S6K1 abrogated the phosphorylation of GSK3-β while increasing and decreasing the levels of IL-12 and IL-10, respectively, in LPS-stimulated monocytes. In contrast, the direct inhibition of GSK3 attenuated the capacity of S6K1 inhibition to influence the levels of IL-10 and IL-12 produced by LPS-stimulated cells. At the transcriptional level, mTORC1 inhibition reduced the DNA binding of CREB and this effect was reversed by GSK3 inhibition. As a result, mTORC1 inhibition increased the levels of NF-κB p65 associated with CREB-binding protein. Inhibition of NF-κB p65 attenuated rapamycin's ability to influence the levels of pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokine production in monocytes stimulated with LPS. These studies identify the molecular mechanism by which mTORC1 affects GSK3 and show that mTORC1 inhibition regulates pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production via its capacity to inactivate GSK3.The Journal of Immunology 03/2011; 186(9):5217-26. · 5.79 Impact Factor
Article: Supernatant from bifidobacterium differentially modulates transduction signaling pathways for biological functions of human dendritic cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Probiotic bacteria have been shown to modulate immune responses and could have therapeutic effects in allergic and inflammatory disorders. However, the signaling pathways engaged by probiotics are poorly understood. We have previously reported that a fermentation product from Bifidobacterium breve C50 (BbC50sn) could induce maturation, high IL-10 production and prolonged survival of DCs via a TLR2 pathway. We therefore studied the roles of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways on biological functions of human monocyte-derived DCs treated with BbC50sn. DCs were differentiated from human monocytes with IL-4 and GM-CSF for 5 days and cultured with BbC50sn, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or Zymosan, with or without specific inhibitors of p38MAPK (SB203580), ERK (PD98059), PI3K (LY294002) and GSK3 (SB216763). We found that 1) the PI3K pathway was positively involved in the prolonged DC survival induced by BbC50sn, LPS and Zymosan in contrast to p38MAPK and GSK3 which negatively regulated DC survival; 2) p38MAPK and PI3K were positively involved in DC maturation, in contrast to ERK and GSK3 which negatively regulated DC maturation; 3) ERK and PI3K were positively involved in DC-IL-10 production, in contrast to GSK3 that was positively involved in DC-IL-12 production whereas p38MAPK was positively involved in both; 4) BbC50sn induced a PI3K/Akt phosphorylation similar to Zymosan and a p38MAPK phosphorylation similar to LPS. We report for the first time that a fermentation product of a bifidobacteria can differentially activate MAPK, GSK3 and PI3K in order to modulate DC biological functions. These results give new insights on the fine-tuned balance between the maintenance of normal mucosal homeostasis to commensal and probiotic bacteria and the specific inflammatory immune responses to pathogen bacteria.PLoS ONE 01/2008; 3(7):e2753. · 4.09 Impact Factor