Article

Bad Nights or Bad Bars? Multilevel Analysis of Environmental Predictors of Aggression in Late-night Large-capacity Bars and Clubs

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health and Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, Canada.
Addiction (Impact Factor: 4.6). 12/2006; 101(11):1569-80. DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2006.01608.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To clarify environmental predictors of bar-room aggression by differentiating relationships due to nightly variations versus across bar variations, frequency versus severity of aggression and patron versus staff aggression.
Male-female pairs of researcher-observers conducted 1334 observations in 118 large capacity (> 300) bars and clubs in Toronto, Canada.
Observers independently rated aspects of the environment (e.g. crowding) at every visit and wrote detailed narratives of each incident of aggression that occurred. Measures of severity of aggression for the visit were calculated by aggregating ratings for each person in aggressive incidents.
Although bivariate analyses confirmed the significance of most environmental predictors of aggression identified in previous research, multivariate analyses identified the following key visit-level predictors (controlling for bar-level relationships): rowdiness/permissive environment and people hanging around after closing predicted both frequency and severity of aggression; sexual activity, contact and competition and people with two or more drinks at closing predicted frequency but not severity of aggression; lack of staff monitoring predicted more severe patron aggression, while having more and better coordinated staff predicted more severe staff aggression. Intoxication of patrons was significantly associated with more frequent and severe patron aggression at the bar level (but not at the visit level) in the multivariate analyses and negatively associated with severity of staff aggression at the visit level.
The results demonstrate clearly the importance of the immediate environment (not just the type of bar or characteristics of usual patrons) and the importance of specific environmental factors, including staff behaviour, in predicting both frequency and severity of aggression.

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    • "Also, aggression on the dance floor may be related to crowding in that area, which suggests the need to improve the design and supervision of dance floors (Graham et al. 2012). The incidence of aggression in shady areas after closing time implies that an efficient closing procedure is also important as the number of people remaining in the venue is associated with the frequency of aggressive acts (Graham et al. 2006). Alternatively, improving the lighting in these areas may also be effective in reducing the incidence of aggression (Homel, Carvolth, Hauritz, McIlwain, & Teague, 2004). "
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    • "Second, alcohol use and addiction may relate crimes to the need for resources to obtain additional alcohol (Rush et al. (1986) and Colon et al. (1982)). Third, the use of alcohol does not lead to crime, but rather creates an environment that encourages criminal behavior (Graham et al. (2006), Toomey and Wagenaar (2002) and Homel et al. (1992)). Most alcohol control policies 7 attempt to limit the positive relationship between alcohol use and crime by limiting alcohol availability. "
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    The B E Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy 12/2011; 14(3). DOI:10.2139/ssrn.1542726 · 0.55 Impact Factor
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    • "Such fi ndings are consistent across a range of populations, including prison inmates (Phillips et al., 2007) and adolescents (Wells et al., 2006). Barroom observations reveal that degree of alcohol intoxication is strongly associated with more severe aggression (Graham et al., 2006a, 2006b), and similar fi ndings are observed in general population studies (Wells and Graham, 2003; Wells et al., 2000). One such investigation found that aggressive incidents could be predicted by the number of drinks consumed 6 hours earlier (Wells and Graham, 2003). "
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