Article

Rho-kinase inhibition acutely augments blood flow in focal cerebral ischemia via endothelial mechanisms.

Department of Radiology, Stroke and Neurovascular Regulation Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA.
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism (Impact Factor: 5.34). 06/2007; 27(5):998-1009. DOI: 10.1038/sj.jcbfm.9600406
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Rho-kinase is a serine threonine kinase that increases vasomotor tone via its effects on both endothelium and smooth muscle. Rho-kinase inhibition reduces cerebral infarct size in wild type, but not endothelial nitric oxide synthase deficient (eNOS-/-) mice. The mechanism may be related to Rho-kinase activation under hypoxic/ischemic conditions and impaired vasodilation because of downregulation of eNOS activity. To further implicate Rho-kinase in impaired vascular relaxation during hypoxia/ischemia, we exposed isolated vessels from rat and mouse to 60 mins of hypoxia, and showed that hypoxia reversibly abolished acetylcholine-induced eNOS-dependent relaxation, and that Rho-kinase inhibitor hydroxyfasudil partially preserved this relaxation during hypoxia. We, therefore, hypothesized that if hypoxia-induced Rho-kinase activation acutely impairs vasodilation in ischemic cortex, in vivo, then Rho-kinase inhibitors would acutely augment cerebral blood flow (CBF) as a mechanism by which they reduce infarct size. To test this, we studied the acute cerebral hemodynamic effects of Rho-kinase inhibitors in ischemic core and penumbra during distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO) in wild-type and eNOS-/- mice using laser speckle flowmetry. When administered 60 mins before or immediately after dMCAO, Rho-kinase inhibitors hydroxyfasudil and Y-27632 reduced the area of severely ischemic cortex. However, hydroxyfasudil did not reduce the area of CBF deficit in eNOS-/- mice, suggesting that its effect on CBF within the ischemic cortex is primarily endothelium-dependent, and not mediated by its direct vasodilator effect on vascular smooth muscle. Our results suggest that Rho-kinase negatively regulates eNOS activity in acutely ischemic brain, thereby worsening the CBF deficit. Therefore, rapid nontranscriptional upregulation of eNOS activity by small molecule inhibitors of Rho-kinase may be a viable therapeutic approach in acute stroke.

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