DMP1 mutations in autosomal recessive hypophosphatemia implicate a bone matrix protein in the regulation of phosphate homeostasis
ABSTRACT Hypophosphatemia is a genetically heterogeneous disease. Here, we mapped an autosomal recessive form (designated ARHP) to chromosome 4q21 and identified homozygous mutations in DMP1 (dentin matrix protein 1), which encodes a non-collagenous bone matrix protein expressed in osteoblasts and osteocytes. Intact plasma levels of the phosphaturic protein FGF23 were clearly elevated in two of four affected individuals, providing a possible explanation for the phosphaturia and inappropriately normal 1,25(OH)2D levels and suggesting that DMP1 may regulate FGF23 expression.
- SourceAvailable from: Elia Beniash
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1), the essential noncollagenous proteins in dentin and bone, is believed to play an important role in the mineralization of these tissues, although the mechanisms of its action are not fully understood. To gain insight into DMP1 functions in dentin mineralization we have performed immunomapping of DMP1 in fully mineralized rat incisors and in vitro calcium phosphate mineralization experiments in the presence of DMP1. DMP1 immunofluorescene was localized in peritubular dentin (PTD) and along the dentin-enamel boundary. In vitro phosphorylated DMP1 induced the formation of parallel arrays of crystallites with their c-axes co-aligned. Such crystalline arrangement is a hallmark of mineralized collagen fibrils of bone and dentin. Interestingly, in DMP1-rich PTD, which lacks collagen fibrils, the crystals are organized in a similar manner. Based on our findings we hypothesize, that in vivo DMP1 controls the mineral organization outside of the collagen fibrils and plays a major role in the mineralization of PTD.Journal of Structural Biology 11/2010; 174(1):100-6. DOI:10.1016/j.jsb.2010.11.013 · 3.37 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) is a hormone that modulates circulating phosphate (P(i)) levels by controlling P(i) reabsorption from the kidneys. When FGF23 levels are deficient, as in tumoral calcinosis patients, hyperphosphatemia ensues. We show here in a murine model that Fgf23 ablation disrupted morphology and protein expression within the dentoalveolar complex. Ectopic matrix formation in pulp chambers, odontoblast layer disruption, narrowing of periodontal ligament space, and alteration of cementum structure were observed in histological and electron microscopy sections. Because serum P(i) levels are dramatically elevated in Fgf23(-/-), we assayed for apoptosis and expression of members from the small integrin-binding ligand, N-linked glycoprotein (SIBLING) family, both of which are sensitive to elevated P(i) in vitro. Unlike X-linked hypophosphatemic (Hyp) and wild-type (WT) specimens, numerous apoptotic osteocytes and osteoblasts were detected in Fgf23(-/-) specimens. Further, in comparison to Hyp and WT samples, decreased bone sialoprotein and elevated dentin matrix protein-1 protein levels were observed in cementum of Fgf23(-/-) mice. Additional dentin-associated proteins, such as dentin sialoprotein and dentin phosphoprotein, exhibited altered localization in both Fgf23(-/-) and Hyp samples. Based on these results, we propose that FGF23 and (P(i)) homeostasis play a significant role in maintenance of the dentoalveolar complex.The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 07/2010; 293(7):1214-26. DOI:10.1002/ar.21152 · 1.53 Impact Factor