General and abdominal obesity and survival among young women with breast cancer
ABSTRACT Among postmenopausal women, obesity is linked to increased risk of breast cancer and poorer subsequent survival. For premenopausal women, obesity may reduce incidence, but less is known about its effect on prognosis, particularly for abdominal obesity. This study investigated whether general or abdominal obesity at diagnosis influenced survival in a cohort of young women with breast cancer. A population-based follow-up study was conducted among 1,254 women ages 20 to 54 who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1990 and 1992 in Atlanta or New Jersey. Women were interviewed within several months of diagnosis and asked about their weight and height at age 20 and in the year before diagnosis. Study personnel did anthropometric measures at the interview. With 8 to 10 years of follow-up, all-cause mortality status was determined using the National Death Index (n = 290 deaths). Increased mortality was observed for women who were obese [body mass index (BMI), > or =30] at the time of interview compared with women of ideal weight [BMI, 18.5-24.9; stage- and income-adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.48; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.09-2.01]. A similar result was seen for the highest versus lowest quartile of waist-to-hip ratio (HR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.05-2.19). Strong associations with mortality were found for women who were obese at age 20 (HR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.15-5.37) or who were overweight/obese (BMI, > or =25) at both age 20 and the time of interview (HR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.45-3.40). This study provides evidence that breast cancer survival is reduced among younger women with general or abdominal obesity.
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ABSTRACT: Obesity is a multi-factorial metabolic disease, resulting in increased adipose tissue acquisition by the host. This disease increases the risk for developing co-morbidities, including Metabolic Syndrome and other disorders such as breast cancer. Obesity, and particularly abdominal obesity, is characterised by metabolic changes, including chronically elevated insulin concentrations and aberrant secretion of cytokines released from fat tissue, called adipokines. Epidemiologically, the risk of developing postmenopausal breast cancer is increased in obese individuals. The molecular link between obesity and breast cancer however is not well understood. The study presented here aimed at identifying the molecular mechanisms involved in this link, by testing the hypothesis that high insulin concentration and certain adipokines may promote breast cancer progression and/or breast cancer aetiology. A cell culture system of breast cancer cells and breast epithelial cells was employed to investigate changes in cell proliferation, activation of cell signalling pathways, cell cycle progression and apoptosis after treatment with insulin, leptin, TNF-α, adiponectin and IL-6. In MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, insulin treatment did not affect cell proliferation, cell cycle or apoptosis. Conversely, IR-phosphorylation, AKT-phosphorylation and ERK1/2-phosphorylation were all significantly increased. Microarray analysis indicated several important changes in gene expression with insulin treatment. Leptin treatment increased proliferation by 21%. Additional analyses of the effect of leptin indicated that neither the PI3-kinase pathway nor the MAP-kinase pathway was involved in mediating this effect. Treatment with TNF-α increased apoptosis, but did not affect cell proliferation or activation of cell signalling pathways. In MCF-10A breast epithelial cells, cell proliferation increased after insulin treatment by 180%. IR-phosphorylation, AKT-phosphorylation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation were all significantly increased while early apoptosis decreased after insulin treatment. Analysis of cell cycle however did not indicate a change in progression. Microarray analysis indicated that insulin treatment may increase expression of genes related to cancer growth. Leptin treatment increased cell proliferation and also increased ERK1/2-phosphorylation, while AKT-phosphorylation was not affected. Leptin did not change cell cycle progression. TNF-α treatment increased cell proliferation and also increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation, while AKT-phosphorylation was not changed. TNF-α treatment tended to increase apoptosis, the change however was not statistically significant. In SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells, cell proliferation did not change after insulin treatment. IR-phosphorylation and AKT-phosphorylation increased after insulin treatment, while ERK1/2-phosphorylation decreased. Gene expression of cyclin D and cyclin E increased with insulin treatment, while apoptotic rate and cell cycle profile were also not affected. Cell proliferation increased by 115% after treatment with 100 ng/ml leptin. ERK1/2-phosphorylation however decreased, while AKT-phosphorylation tended to increase, but the change was not statistically significant. Cell cycle profile was not affected by leptin treatment, G1-phase however tended to increase, but the change was again not statistically significant. Cell proliferation increased by 59% after 48 h treatment with 10 ng/ml TNF-α. AKT-phosphorylation and ERK1/2-phosphorylation increased with TNF-α treatment. Cell cycle analysis showed a decrease in S-phase and G2-phase, indicative of a decrease in cell cycle progression. These results indicate that none of the examined obesity-related factors is convincingly identified as the main molecular link between obesity and postmenopausal breast cancer. Conversely, all treatments affected each of the cell lines in, at least, one of the examined aspects. This indicates that many of the obesity-related factors may affect breast cancer and that a single breast tumour may utilise a unique combination of those factors to promote growth. All treatments increased proliferation in MCF-10A breast epithelial cells, with additional analysis generally supporting growth promotion. Insulin treatment particularly increased cell proliferation, while leptin and TNF-α increased MAP-kinase signalling. This may indicate that insulin and adipokines may have a higher impact on breast cancer aetiology than on breast cancer progression.11/2010, Degree: PhD, Supervisor: Giovanna Bermano, John Broom, Klaus Wahle
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ABSTRACT: Lung cancer in young patients (less or equal to 45 years) is uncommon and has clinical characteristics different from that in older patients. We investigated the outcomes and prognostic factors of young patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). From January 2000 to December 2009, we enrolled patients aged ≤45 years and diagnosed with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC. Their clinical data, including age, gender, performance status, histologic types, disease stages, laboratory data at diagnosis, treatment modalities, and survival were reviewed and analyzed. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 144 patients with advanced NSCLC were included. Female patients were more prevalent (n = 74, 51.4%). Adenocarcinoma was the most common histologic type (n = 119, 82.6%) in both genders (male, n = 54, 77.1%; female, n = 65, 87.8%). Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) sequences were determined using tumor specimens from 58 patients, and 29 showed an EGFR mutation. No significant difference in median survival was found between patient groups with and without the EGFR mutation (798 vs. 708 days, p = 0.65). In multivariate analysis, male gender (HR, 1.70; 95% CI: 1.08-2.68), body mass index (BMI) less than 25 kg/m(2) (HR, 2.72; 95% CI: 1.39-5.30), stage IV disease (HR, 2.62; 95% CI: 1.50-4.57), and anemia (HR, 2.08; 95% CI: 1.15-3.77) were associated with a short survival time. Low BMI, stage IV disease, anemia at diagnosis, and male gender were the negative prognostic factors for young patients with advanced NSCLC.BMC Cancer 06/2012; 12:241. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-12-241 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Body mass index (BMI) may be an important factor affecting breast cancer outcome. Studies conducted mainly in Western countries have reported a relationship between higher BMI and a higher risk of all-cause death or breast cancer-specific death among women with breast cancer, but only a few studies have been reported in Japan so far. In the present prospective study, we investigated the associations between BMI and the risk of all-cause and breast cancer-specific death among breast cancer patients overall and by menopausal status and hormone receptor status. The study included 653 breast cancer patients admitted to a single hospital in Japan, between 1997 and 2005. BMI was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. The patients were completely followed up until December, 2008. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated according to quartile points of BMI categories, respectively: <21.2, ≥21.2 to <23.3 (reference), ≥23.3 to <25.8 and ≥25.8 kg/m2. During the follow-up period, 136 all-cause and 108 breast cancer-specific deaths were observed. After adjustment for clinical and confounding factors, higher BMI was associated with an increased risk of all-cause death (HR = 2.61; 95% CI: 1.01-6.78 for BMI ≥25.8 vs. ≥21.2 to <23.3 kg/m2) among premenopausal patients. According to hormonal receptor status, BMI ≥25.8 kg/m2 was associated with breast cancer-specific death (HR = 4.95; 95% CI: 1.05-23.35) and BMI <21.2 kg/m2 was associated with all-cause (HR = 2.91; 95% CI: 1.09-7.77) and breast cancer-specific death (HR = 7.23; 95% CI: 1.57-33.34) among patients with ER + or PgR + tumors. Analysis by hormonal receptor status also showed a positive association between BMI and mortality risk among patients with ER + or PgR + tumors and with BMI ≥21.2 kg/m2 (p for trend: 0.020 and 0.031 for all-cause and breast cancer-specific death, respectively). Our results suggest that both higher BMI and lower BMI are associated with an increased risk of mortality, especially among premenopausal patients or among patients with hormonal receptor positive tumors. Breast cancer patients should be informed of the potential importance of maintaining an appropriate body weight after they have been diagnosed.BMC Cancer 04/2012; 12(24 Supplement):149. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-12-149 · 3.32 Impact Factor