Among postmenopausal women, obesity is linked to increased risk of breast cancer and poorer subsequent survival. For premenopausal women, obesity may reduce incidence, but less is known about its effect on prognosis, particularly for abdominal obesity. This study investigated whether general or abdominal obesity at diagnosis influenced survival in a cohort of young women with breast cancer. A population-based follow-up study was conducted among 1,254 women ages 20 to 54 who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1990 and 1992 in Atlanta or New Jersey. Women were interviewed within several months of diagnosis and asked about their weight and height at age 20 and in the year before diagnosis. Study personnel did anthropometric measures at the interview. With 8 to 10 years of follow-up, all-cause mortality status was determined using the National Death Index (n = 290 deaths). Increased mortality was observed for women who were obese [body mass index (BMI), > or =30] at the time of interview compared with women of ideal weight [BMI, 18.5-24.9; stage- and income-adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.48; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.09-2.01]. A similar result was seen for the highest versus lowest quartile of waist-to-hip ratio (HR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.05-2.19). Strong associations with mortality were found for women who were obese at age 20 (HR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.15-5.37) or who were overweight/obese (BMI, > or =25) at both age 20 and the time of interview (HR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.45-3.40). This study provides evidence that breast cancer survival is reduced among younger women with general or abdominal obesity.
"Similar results have also been found for gastric cancer and renal cell carcinoma [23,24]. However, high BMI is a poor prognostic factor in breast cancer [25-27]. Obese patients may have better nutritional resources to withstand the stress of cancer metastasis and cachexia . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lung cancer in young patients (less or equal to 45 years) is uncommon and has clinical characteristics different from that in older patients. We investigated the outcomes and prognostic factors of young patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
From January 2000 to December 2009, we enrolled patients aged ≤45 years and diagnosed with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC. Their clinical data, including age, gender, performance status, histologic types, disease stages, laboratory data at diagnosis, treatment modalities, and survival were reviewed and analyzed. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI).
A total of 144 patients with advanced NSCLC were included. Female patients were more prevalent (n = 74, 51.4%). Adenocarcinoma was the most common histologic type (n = 119, 82.6%) in both genders (male, n = 54, 77.1%; female, n = 65, 87.8%). Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) sequences were determined using tumor specimens from 58 patients, and 29 showed an EGFR mutation. No significant difference in median survival was found between patient groups with and without the EGFR mutation (798 vs. 708 days, p = 0.65). In multivariate analysis, male gender (HR, 1.70; 95% CI: 1.08-2.68), body mass index (BMI) less than 25 kg/m(2) (HR, 2.72; 95% CI: 1.39-5.30), stage IV disease (HR, 2.62; 95% CI: 1.50-4.57), and anemia (HR, 2.08; 95% CI: 1.15-3.77) were associated with a short survival time.
Low BMI, stage IV disease, anemia at diagnosis, and male gender were the negative prognostic factors for young patients with advanced NSCLC.
BMC Cancer 06/2012; 12(1):241. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-12-241 · 3.36 Impact Factor
"It was also found that these heavier women tended to have larger tumor size, higher histological grade, and were more likely to have markers of high cellular proliferation than the thinner women . Other studies reported similar associations between BMI at the time of diagnosis and poor outcomes among premenopausal women with breast cancer [26,35,36]. Most, but not all, studies have confirmed the association between BMI and breast cancer recurrence and survival in postmenopausal women [28,31,33,37]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In spite of its public health importance, our understanding of the mechanisms of breast carcinogenesis and progress is still evolving. The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a constellation of biochemical abnormalities including visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure. The components of the MS have all been related to late-stage disease and even to a poor prognosis of breast cancer through multiple interacting mechanisms. In this review, we aim to present a summary of recent advances in the understanding of the contribution of the MS to breast cancer with the emphasis on the role of biomarkers of the MS in the prognosis of breast cancer.
"); trends were observed in physical activity energy expenditure (À400 versus þ 111 kcal/week) and physical functioning (À0.5 versus þ3.1) mortality for cancers of the breast, esophagus, colon and rectum, cervix, uterus, liver, gallbladder, stomach, pancreas, prostate, kidney, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma , and multiple myeloma, and all cancers combined       . Finally, additional weight gain is common during or after treatment for various cancers, and has been found to reduce quality of life (QOL) and exacerbate risk for functional decline, comorbidity, and perhaps even cancer recurrence and cancer-related death    . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With improving longevity, the late-occurring adverse effects of cancer and its treatment are becoming increasingly apparent. As in other clinical populations, healthy lifestyle behaviors encompassing weight management, a healthy diet, regular exercise, and smoking cessation have the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality significantly in cancer survivors. This article addresses the strength of evidence for recommendations in areas of weight management, diet, exercise, and smoking cessation; and the current evidence examining the efficacy of various intervention approaches to promote health behavior changes among adult cancer survivors.
Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America 05/2008; 22(2):319-42, viii. DOI:10.1016/j.hoc.2008.01.012 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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