The hypothesis that interindividual differences among smokers in the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are related to lung cancer risk has been extensively investigated in the literature. These studies have compared lung cancer risk in groups of smokers with or without polymorphisms in genes involved in PAH metabolism. We believe that carcinogen metabolite phenotyping, involving the actual measurement of PAH metabolites, would be a better way to investigate differences in lung cancer risk. With this goal in mind, we have developed methods for quantifying phenanthrene metabolites in urine. Phenanthrene is the simplest PAH with a bay region, a feature closely associated with carcinogenicity. The urinary metabolite r-1,t-2,3,c-4-tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene (PheT) is a measure of metabolic activation, whereas phenanthrols (HOPhe) are a measure of detoxification. In this study, we quantified urinary PheT/HOPhe ratios in 346 smokers who were also genotyped for 11 polymorphisms in genes involved in PAH metabolism: CYP1A1MspI, CYP1A1I462V, CYP1B1R48G, CYP1B1A119S, CYP1B1L432V, CYP1B1N453S, EPHX1Y113H, EPHX1H139R, GSTP1I105V, GSTP1A114V, and GSTM1 null. The geometric mean molar PheT/3-HOPhe ratio was 4.08 (95% confidence interval, 3.79-4.39). Ten percent of the smokers had PheT/3-HOPhe ratios of > or =9.90. We found a significant association between the presence of the CYP1A1I462V polymorphism and high PheT/3-HOPhe ratios (P = 0.02). This effect was particularly strong in females and in combination with the GSTM1 null polymorphism. In contrast, the CYP1B1R48G and CYP1B1A119S polymorphisms were associated with significantly lower PheT/3-HOPhe ratios, particularly in Blacks. There were no consistent significant effects of any of the other polymorphisms on PheT/3-HOPhe ratios. The highest 10% of PheT/3-HOPhe ratios could not be predicted by the presence of any of the 11 polymorphisms individually or by certain combinations. The effects of the CYP1A1I462 polymorphism observed here, particularly in combination with GSTM1 null, are quite consistent with reports in the literature. However, the results of this study indicate that genotyping is not an effective way to predict PAH metabolism at least as represented by PheT/HOPhe ratios.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are major interindividual differences in carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolism in humans, and it has been hypothesized that these differences may be related to cancer risk in smokers and other exposed people. One important pathway of PAH metabolism involves the detoxification of the epoxide and diol epoxide metabolites by reaction with glutathione, catalyzed by glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs). Interindividual differences in these pathways have been examined by genotyping methods, investigating polymorphisms in GSTM1 and GSTP1. We are developing a phenotyping approach to assessing individual differences in PAH metabolism by quantifying human urinary metabolites of the ubiquitous PAH phenanthrene (1). In this study, we developed a method for quantitation of a mercapturic acid, N-acetyl-S-(9,10-dihydro-9-hydroxy-10-phenanthryl)-l-cysteine (PheO-NAC, 12), the end product of the reaction of phenanthrene-9,10-epoxide (11) with glutathione. [D(10)]PheO-NAC was added to the urine as internal standard, and the PheO-NAC fraction was enriched by solid-phase extraction. PheO-NAC was quantified by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with selected reaction monitoring. The detection limit was approximately 4 fmol/mL of urine. PheO-NAC was detected in the urine of 46 of 104 smokers, mean (S.D.) 57.9 +/- 144 fmol/mL. PheO-NAC was detected significantly more frequently (P < 0.0001) in subjects who were GSTM1 positive than in those who were GSTM1 null, and the levels of PheO-NAC were significantly higher in the GSTM1 positive subjects, consistent with a role for GSTM1 in the detoxification of phenanthrene-9,10-epoxide. There were no significant relationships between PheO-NAC levels and the occurrence of two GSTP1 polymorphisms. The results of this study provide the first evidence for a PAH-derived mercapturic acid in human urine and should be useful in the development of a phenotyping approach to assess individual differences in PAH metabolism.
Chemical Research in Toxicology 10/2006; 19(9):1234-40. DOI:10.1021/tx060096w · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies of the metabolic activation of chemical carcinogens including benzo(a)pyrene have demonstrated that selected aromatic hydrocarbons can undergo a series of biological substitution reactions in tissue cytosol preparations when in the presence of the methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine. Although identification of the methylated metabolites of carcinogens had been tentatively established using liquid chromatographic techniques, confirmation of the identity of these methylated derivatives has remained elusive. In the present study, the carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene was found to undergo methylation reactions in the presence of rat liver cytosol preparations to yield products that were identified as methylated, formyl and hydroxyalkyl derivatives of the parent carcinogen. Identification and confirmation of the identity of the 6-methylbenzo(a)pyrene metabolite was confirmed by both UV detection, gas chromatographic and mass spectral identification, and NMR analysis of metabolic fractions obtained from incubations of benzo(a)pyrene. The results conclusively demonstrate that the carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene undergoes biological substitution reactions to yield 6-methylbenzo(a)pyrene in the presence of cytosolic enzymes. The presence of 6-methylbenzo(a)pyrene as a metabolite of benzo(a)pyrene illustrates and confirms the presence of centers of reactivity in unsubstituted aromatic hydrocarbons. These centers of reactivity serve as sites for biochemical substitution reactions, yielding methyl substituted hydrocarbons. Furthermore, these methylated metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are further metabolically activated to hydroxyalkyl and formyl derivatives which can be subsequently activated to electrophilic esters leading to DNA and protein reactive species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In regulatory toxicology, the dose-response relationship between occupational exposure and biomarkers is of importance in setting threshold values. We analyzed the relationships between occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and various biomarkers of internal exposure and DNA damage with data from 284 highly exposed male workers. Personal exposure to phenanthrene and other PAHs was measured during shift and correlated with the sum of 1-, 2+9-, 3-, and 4-hydroxyphenanthrenes in post-shift urine. PAHs and hydroxyphenanthrenes were associated with DNA damage assessed in WBC as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine/10(6) dGuo and strand breaks by Comet assay as Olive tail moment. Hydroxyphenanthrenes correlated with phenanthrene (Spearman r(s) = 0.70; P < 0.0001). No correlations could be found between strand breaks and exposure (r(s) = 0.01, P < 0.0001 for PAHs; r(s) = -0.03, P = 0.68 for hydroxyphenanthrenes). Correlations with 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine/10(6) dGuo were weakly negative (r(s) = -0.22, P = 0.004 for PAHs) or flat (r(s) = -0.08, P = 0.31 for hydroxyphenanthrenes). Linear splines were applied to assess the relationships between the log-transformed variables. All regression models were adjusted for smoking and type of industry. For hydroxyphenanthrenes, 51.7% of the variance could be explained by phenanthrene and other predictors. Up to 0.77 microg/m(3) phenanthrene, no association could be found with hydroxyphenanthrenes. Above that point, hydroxyphenanthrenes increased by a factor of 1.47 under a doubling of phenanthrene exposure (slope, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.64). Hydroxyphenanthrenes may be recommended as biomarker of occupational PAH exposure, whereas biomarkers of DNA damage in blood did not show a dose-response relation to PAH exposure.
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