Small C-terminal domain phosphatases dephosphorylate the regulatory linker regions of Smad2 and Smad3 to enhance transforming growth factor-beta signaling.
ABSTRACT Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) controls a diverse set of cellular processes, and its canonical signaling is mediated via TGF-beta-induced phosphorylation of receptor-activated Smads (2 and 3) at the C-terminal SXS motif. We recently discovered that PPM1A can dephosphorylate Smad2/3 at the C-terminal SXS motif, implicating a critical role for phosphatases in regulating TGF-beta signaling. Smad2/3 activity is also regulated by phosphorylation in the linker region (and N terminus) by a variety of intracellular kinases, making it a critical platform for cross-talk between TGF-beta and other signaling pathways. Using a functional genomic approach, we identified the small C-terminal domain phosphatase 1 (SCP1) as a specific phosphatase for Smad2/3 dephosphorylation in the linker and N terminus. A catalytically inactive SCP1 mutant (dnSCP1) had no effect on Smad2/3 phosphorylation in vitro or in vivo. Of the other FCP/SCP family members SCP2 and SCP3, but not FCP1, could also dephosphorylate Smad2/3 in the linker/N terminus. Depletion of SCP1/2/3 enhanced Smad2/3 linker phosphorylation. SCP1 increased TGF-beta-induced transcriptional activity in agreement with the idea that phosphorylation in the Smad2/3 linker must be removed for a full transcriptional response. SCP1 overexpression also counteracts the inhibitory effect of epidermal growth factor on TGF-beta-induced p15 expression. Taken together, this work identifies the first example of a Smad2/3 linker phosphatase(s) and reveals an important new substrate for SCPs.
Article: HLA-B-associated transcript 3 (Bat3/Scythe) negatively regulates Smad phosphorylation in BMP signaling.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily participate in numerous biological phenomena in multiple tissues, including in cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. TGF-β superfamily proteins therefore have prominent roles in wound healing, fibrosis, bone formation, and carcinogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating these signaling pathways are not fully understood. Here, we describe the regulation of bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling by Bat3 (also known as Scythe or BAG6). Bat3 overexpression in murine cell lines suppresses the activity of the Id1 promoter normally induced by BMP signaling. Conversely, Bat3 inactivation enhances the induction of direct BMP target genes, such as Id1, Smad6, and Smad7. Consequently, Bat3 deficiency accelerates the differentiation of primary osteoblasts into bone, with a concomitant increase in the bone differentiation markers Runx2, Osterix, and alkaline phosphatase. Using biochemical and cell biological analyses, we show that Bat3 inactivation sustains the C-terminal phosphorylation and nuclear localization of Smad1, 5, and 8 (Smad1/5/8), thereby enhancing biological responses to BMP treatment. At the mechanistic level, we show that Bat3 interacts with the nuclear phosphatase small C-terminal domain phosphatase (SCP) 2, which terminates BMP signaling by dephosphorylating Smad1/5/8. Notably, Bat3 enhances SCP2-Smad1 interaction only when the BMP signaling pathway is activated. Our results demonstrate that Bat3 is an important regulator of BMP signaling that functions by modulating SCP2-Smad interaction.Cell Death & Disease 01/2011; 2:e236. · 5.33 Impact Factor