To investigate the effect of Pygeum africanum (PA) extract on the proliferation of cultured human prostatic myofibroblasts and fibroblasts; this extract is used for treating urinary disorders associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Primary cultures of prostatic stromal cells were obtained from histologically confirmed human BPH by enzymatic digestion. Cell proliferation was measured by 5-bromo2'-deoxy-uridine (BrdU) incorporation assays, and cytotoxicity by luminescent quantification of adenylate kinase activity.
Cultured cells were labelled by an anti-vimentin antibody, and most of them by an alpha-smooth-muscle-actin antibody, revealing the presence of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. BrdU incorporation tests showed that proliferation of cultured human stromal cells, stimulated by fetal calf serum, by basic fibroblast growth factor and by epidermal growth factor, was dose-dependently inhibited by PA extract (5-100 microg/mL). Except at 100 microg/mL, no acute cytotoxicity of the extract was detected after 24 h of culture. Similarly, the extract dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells, but to a lesser extent; whatever the dose of extract, no acute toxicity was evident on this cell line.
PA extract inhibits the proliferation of cultured human prostatic myofibroblasts and fibroblasts. We propose that cultured human prostatic cells offer a reliable model for preclinical screening of therapeutic agents, and to study the mechanisms underlying the inhibition of proliferation.
"herefore potentiating the overall effect on prostatic diseases . For instance extracts form Pygeum africanum were shown to inhibit membrane receptors that are involved in AR signaling and thus suppress AR activity ( Yablonski et al . , 1997 ; Szolnoki et M a n u s c r i p t Roell and Baniahmad 14 al . , 2001 ; Santa Maria Margalef et al . , 2003 ; Boulbès et al . , 2006 ; Edgar et al . , 2007 ; Li et al . , 2007 ; Quiles et al . , 2010 ) ( Fig . 2 ) ."
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracts from the plant Pygeum africanum are widely used in the therapy of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and in combinational therapy for prostate cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death and the mostly diagnosed form of cancer in men. The androgen receptor (AR) plays a crucial role in the development of the prostate as well as in prostate diseases. Even though the extracts from P. africanum are considered as beneficial for prostate diseases in clinical trials, and some active compounds for treatment of BPH could be identified, compounds responsible for AR inhibition and the molecular mechanism for inhibition of prostatitis need to be identified. Recently, atraric acid and N-butylbenzene-sulfonamide were isolated from a selective dichlormethane extract of P. africanum as two novel AR antagonistic compounds. The molecular mechanisms of AR inhibition were analyzed and are summarized here. Both compounds are the first known natural, complete and specific AR antagonist.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the available data from clinical trials for certain botanicals used for lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia, including Serenoa repens (saw palmetto), Pygeum africanum (African plum), Secale cereale (rye pollen) and Hypoxis rooperi (South African star grass).
MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library searches were done in June 2007 using the terms benign prostatic hyperplasia, lower urinary tract symptoms, phytotherapy, saw palmetto, Serenoa, Permixon, Pygeum africanum, Tadenan, Cernilton, Cernitin and Hypoxis. Search results were assessed for relevance and the inclusion of placebo controlled trials.
Two systematic reviews and 3 clinical trials were examined in the evaluation of Serenoa repens. Data from the systematic reviews showed an improvement in flow rates and symptoms. The results of 1 clinical trial were equivocal and the remaining 2 trials clearly showed equivalence to placebo. Systematic reviews were used in the evaluation of P. africanum, Secale cereale and Hypoxis rooperi. P. africanum and H. rooperi showed an improvement in flow rates and symptoms compared to placebo, while S. cereale showed an improvement in symptoms but not flow rates compared to placebo.
Most clinical trials of investigating the efficacy of botanicals suffer from well documented methodological flaws. Saw palmetto has been clearly shown as comparable to placebo in a trial of sound methodology. While preliminary results appear promising, to our knowledge the remaining botanicals have yet to be evaluated in a trial of similar quality.
The Journal of urology 07/2008; 179(6):2119-25. DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2008.01.094 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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