Epidemiological surveillance of human enteric viruses by monitoring of different environmental matrices.
ABSTRACT In the aim of studying possible relations between viruses detected in clinical specimens and the ones found in different environmental matrices, in the period May 2004 to April 2005, the collection of faecal samples from gastroenteritis cases and the monthly monitoring of raw and treated wastewater, river water, seawater and mussels were carried out. The viruses considered for environmental monitoring were adenovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus, norovirus, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Torque teno virus (TTV): they were searched for with PCR and RT-PCR and confirmed by gene sequencing. Faecal coliforms and somatic coliphages' counts were also determined. The surveillance of case detected 45 positive faecal samples out of 255 (17.6%) while 35 of 56 environmental samples (62.5%) resulted positive for at least one of the considered viruses. The detection of the same viral strain in the faeces of gastroenteritis cases and in water was possible for adenovirus and rotavirus, which were also predominant in environmental matrices; thus they could be considered as a reference for risk assessment.
Article: Human Enteric Viruses in Groundwater[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Waterborne outbreaks of enteric viruses are a major public health concern. The present study has been carried out to assess the presence of enteric viruses responsible for human acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in groundwater intended for drinking and produce washing. In total, 62 samples from groundwater for drinking and produce washing collected from Dec 2007 to Dec 2008 in Seoul were tested for enteric viruses using conventional RT–PCR, ELISA, and real-time RT–PCR. Our results showed that enteric viruses were detected in 7 (8.8%) groundwater samples. Rotaviruses were detected in 3 (4.8%) of the samples by ELISA; human adenoviruses were detected in 2 (3.2%) of the samples by ELISA; and nested RT–PCR detected noroviruses in 2 (3.2%) of the samples. In one of the groundwater sample, the norovirus RNA was detected by conventional RT–PCR which was confirmed positive by real-time RT–PCR. Additionally, real-time RT–PCR successfully detected norovirus RNA in five out of 62 water samples (8.1%). The data demonstrate that real-time RT–PCR will be useful as a rapid and sensitive method for detecting norovirus in water samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the noroviruses detected in two of the groundwater samples belonged to GII-4. These studies can provide important information for the prevalence of enteric viruses in Korean groundwater.Food and Environmental Virology 06/2010; 2(2):69-73. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is well known that workers involved in the management of solid waste are at risk of exposure to bioaerosol, which is generally studied in relation to bacteria, fungi, and endotoxins. However, to date, there have been no reports on the incidence of work-related infectious diseases. To determine if occupational exposure to viruses occurs upon exposure to waste-related activities, monitoring was carried out in a landfill, a waste recycling plant, an incineration plant, and a waste collection vehicles. Air and surfaces were sampled and analyzed for torque teno virus (TTV), human adenovirus (HAdV), norovirus, rotavirus, and enterovirus using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. Positivity was confirmed by sequencing and quantification with real-time PCR; infectivity was also tested for culturable viruses. Samples were analyzed in parallel for mean total bacterial and fungi counts in both the summer and winter. In total, 30% (12/40) of air and 13.5% (5/37) of surface samples collected in plants were positive for HAdV and TTV. Among the eight HAdV-positive samples, six (75%), revealed in landfill and recycling plant air and in incinerator and waste vehicles surfaces, were able to replicate in cell culture and were subsequently confirmed as infective. The frequency of detection of virus-positive samples was similar in both seasons, but with evident differences in the type of virus detected: TTV and HAdV were more frequently detected in the summer and winter, respectively. The area of highest viral contamination was the paper selection landfill. Fungi and bacterial contamination did not correlate with viral presence or concentration. In conclusion, we evidence that working with solid and liquid waste can lead to infectious viruses, included in Group 2 of the European Directive 90/679/CEE pathogens list; thus, further investigation on the sources and routes of contamination is needed in order to assess the occupational risk.Annals of Occupational Hygiene 08/2013; · 2.07 Impact Factor