Epidemiological surveillance of human enteric viruses by monitoring of different environmental matrices.
ABSTRACT In the aim of studying possible relations between viruses detected in clinical specimens and the ones found in different environmental matrices, in the period May 2004 to April 2005, the collection of faecal samples from gastroenteritis cases and the monthly monitoring of raw and treated wastewater, river water, seawater and mussels were carried out. The viruses considered for environmental monitoring were adenovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus, norovirus, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Torque teno virus (TTV): they were searched for with PCR and RT-PCR and confirmed by gene sequencing. Faecal coliforms and somatic coliphages' counts were also determined. The surveillance of case detected 45 positive faecal samples out of 255 (17.6%) while 35 of 56 environmental samples (62.5%) resulted positive for at least one of the considered viruses. The detection of the same viral strain in the faeces of gastroenteritis cases and in water was possible for adenovirus and rotavirus, which were also predominant in environmental matrices; thus they could be considered as a reference for risk assessment.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of wastewater treatment is to minimize chemical and microbial contamination of recipient waters. The present study evaluated the impacts of meteorological variables, such as temperature and rainfall, on the removal of human viruses and indicators by a wastewater treatment plant servicing Pisa, Italy. Data were obtained during four sampling campaigns from 2007 to 2010. Wastewater sewage samples were analyzed for human adenovirus (HAdV) and norovirus using quantitative molecular techniques. In parallel, Escherichia coli, enterococci and somatic coliphages were measured, and meteorological and chemical data were recorded. We detected a continuous presence of HAdV in both influent and effluent samples with an average removal rate of 2.01 log Genomic Copies/l. An association between meteorological parameters and viral removal rates was detected only for rainfall and HAdV removal during a specific sampling campaign. No correlation was found between viral data and microbial, chemical and physical ones. Viral removal rates were not strongly influenced by meteorological conditions and were unrelated to other process indicators routinely monitored. Our results suggest that HAdV is a suitable parameter to assess the viral removal efficiency of wastewater treatment plants, particularly in the case of heavy rainfall.Food and Environmental Virology 03/2013; 5(1):69-76. · 2.51 Impact Factor
Article: Human Enteric Viruses in Groundwater[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Waterborne outbreaks of enteric viruses are a major public health concern. The present study has been carried out to assess the presence of enteric viruses responsible for human acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in groundwater intended for drinking and produce washing. In total, 62 samples from groundwater for drinking and produce washing collected from Dec 2007 to Dec 2008 in Seoul were tested for enteric viruses using conventional RT–PCR, ELISA, and real-time RT–PCR. Our results showed that enteric viruses were detected in 7 (8.8%) groundwater samples. Rotaviruses were detected in 3 (4.8%) of the samples by ELISA; human adenoviruses were detected in 2 (3.2%) of the samples by ELISA; and nested RT–PCR detected noroviruses in 2 (3.2%) of the samples. In one of the groundwater sample, the norovirus RNA was detected by conventional RT–PCR which was confirmed positive by real-time RT–PCR. Additionally, real-time RT–PCR successfully detected norovirus RNA in five out of 62 water samples (8.1%). The data demonstrate that real-time RT–PCR will be useful as a rapid and sensitive method for detecting norovirus in water samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the noroviruses detected in two of the groundwater samples belonged to GII-4. These studies can provide important information for the prevalence of enteric viruses in Korean groundwater.Food and Environmental Virology 06/2010; 2(2):69-73. · 2.51 Impact Factor