Contextual interference effect on acquisition and retention of pistol-shooting skills.
ABSTRACT The effects of contextual interference on learning pistol-shooting skills in a natural training environment were examined. The shooting skills consisted of three "stages" with different requirements for the skill variations commonly used in the field. 12 participants were randomly assigned into one of two practice conditions, blocked vs serial. Following a 20-min. safety and skill instructional session, Blocked group practiced 10 trials in a row at each stage, while Serial group performed 5 trials in a row for each of the three stages and then repeated the cycle. Both groups completed a total of 30 practice trials over the three stages. A 10-min. rest interval was provided prior to a retention test which included 9 trials (3 trials at each stage in a blocked format). Results based on the data of Stage III, the most complex skill among the three stages, showed a pattern consistent with previous findings that practicing in the serial schedule depressed performance during initial training but maintained the performance better at retention, relative to the blocked practice.
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ABSTRACT: We examined the impact of self-controlled knowledge of results on the acquisition, retention, and transfer of anticipation timing skill as a function of random and blocked practice schedules. Forty-eight undergraduate students were divided into experimental groups that practiced under varying combinations of random or blocked as well as self-controlled or yoked practice conditions. Anticipation timing performance (5, 13, and 21 mph) was recorded during acquisition and during a short term no-feedback retention test. A transfer test, administered 24 h after the retention test, consisted of two novel anticipation timing speeds (9, 17 mph). Absolute error (AE) and variable error (VE) of timing served as the dependent measures. All participants improved their accuracy and consistency across acquisition blocks; however, those who practiced under blocked rather than random conditions had greater accuracy (lower AE) regardless of feedback delivery. During retention and transfer, those who practiced under random conditions showed greater consistency (lower VE) compared to their blocked counterparts. Finally, participants who controlled their feedback schedule were more accurate (lower AE) and less variable (lower VE) during transfer compared to yoked participants, regardless of practice scheduling. Our findings indicate that practicing under a random schedule improves retention and transfer consistency, while self-control of feedback is advantageous to both the accuracy and consistency with which anticipation timing skill transfers to novel task demands. The combination of these learning manipulations, however, does not improve skill retention or transfer above and beyond their orthogonal effects.Frontiers in Psychology 01/2012; 3:503. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To overcome the weakness of the contextual interference (CI) effect within applied settings, Brady, 2008 recommended that the amount of interference be manipulated. This study investigated the effect of five practice schedules on the learning of three field hockey skills. Fifty-five pre-university students performed a total of 90 trials for each skill under blocked, mixed or random practice orders. Results showed a significant time effect with all five practice conditions leading to improvements in acquisition and learning of the skills. No significant differences were found between the groups. The findings of the present study did not support the CI effect and suggest that either blocked, mixed, or random practice schedules can be used effectively when structuring practice for beginners. Key pointsThe contextual interference effect did not surface when using sport skills.There appears to be no difference between blocked and random practice schedules in the learning of field hockey skills.Low (blocked), moderate (mixed) or high (random) interference practice schedules can be used effectively when conducting a multiple skill practice session for beginners.Journal of sports science & medicine 01/2012; 11(2):304-11. · 0.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 25 ARTICULOS Efeito da quantidade de prática sobre a interferência contextual no aprendizado de tarefa motora manipulativa Resumo Este estudo analisou o efeito da Interferência Contextual (IC) em função da quantidade de prática realizada, em uma tarefa motora manipulativa. Trinta estudantes de escola pública (8-9 anos) reali-zaram a tarefa de contornar figuras geométricas no software Draw Task v.1.5 (Okazaki, 2007) por meio de uma mesa digitalizadora (Tablet) conectada a um notebook. Os participantes foram divididos em dois grupos, a saber: (AIC) alta IC e (BIC) baixa IC. A aquisição foi composta de três sessões de prática (total de 72 tentativas), em que a estruturação da prática foi manipulada por meio da ordem de realização do contorno das figuras círculo, triângulo e quadrado. Tanto o grupo AIC quanto o BIC demonstraram aprender, em função da prática realizada. Porém, não houve diferenças entre os grupos. Deste modo, não foi verificado o efeito da IC, que foi justificada pela grande quantidade de prática e características da amostra. Palavras-chave: Interferência Contextual, Prática em Blocos, Prática Randômica, Estruturação da Prática. Amount of practice effect on contextual interference in the manipulative motor task learning Abstract The present study analyzed the Contextual Interference (IC) effect in function of the amount of practice, in a manipulative motor task. Thirdy students from a public school (8-9 years old) performed the task of outlining geometric figures using the software Draw Task v.1.5 (Okazaki, 2007) and a digitalizing tablet connected to a notebook. Participants were divided within two groups, named as: (AIC) high IC and (BIC) low IC. Acquisition was composed by three sessions of practice (total of 72 trials), in which the practice structure was manipulated by the order of performance of outlining the figures of circle, triangle and square. Both groups, AIC and BIC, showed to learn in function of practice performed. However, there was no difference between groups. Therefore, the CI effect was not verified, that was explained by the great amount of practice and by the characteristics of the sample.Interamerican Journal of Psychology. 10/2013; 47(1):25-32.