Reference values for the five-repetition sit-to-stand test: a descriptive meta-analysis of data from elders.

Neag School of Education, University of Connecticut, 358 Mansfield Road, Storrs, CT 06269-2101, USA.
Perceptual and Motor Skills (Impact Factor: 0.49). 09/2006; 103(1):215-22. DOI: 10.2466/PMS.103.5.215-222
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This meta-analysis was conducted to generate normative values for the 5-repetition sit-to-stand (STS) test suitable for application to individuals at least 60 years of age. A thorough review of the literature yielded 13 papers (14 studies) relevant to this purpose. After the exclusion of potentially unrepresentative data, meta-analysis of these 13 papers indicated that judgments about normal performance should be based on age. Analysis demonstrated that individuals with times for 5 repetitions of this test exceeding the following can be considered to have worse than average performance: 11.4 sec (60 to 69 years), 12.6 sec. (70 to 79 years), and 14.8 sec. (80 to 89 years).

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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: This study sought to analyze the effects of resistance training on functional performance, lower-limb loading distribution and balance in older women with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and osteoarthritis (OA) in the contralateral knee. In addition, this older knee OA and TKA group (OKG) was compared to older (OG) and young women (YG) without musculoskeletal diseases who underwent the same resistance training program. METHODS: Twenty-three women divided into OKG (N = 7), OG (N = 8) and YG (N = 8) had their functional performance, lower-limb loading distribution and balance compared before and after 13 weeks of a twice-weekly progressive resistance training program. RESULTS: At baseline, the OKG showed lower functional performance and unilateral balance, and impaired lower-limb loading distribution compared to the OG and the YG (p<0.05). After resistance training, the OKG showed improvements in functional performance (∼13% in sit-to-stand and rising from the floor, ∼16% in stair-climbing and ∼23% in 6-minute walking (6 MW)), unilateral balance (∼72% and ∼78% in TKA and OA leg, respectively) and lower-limb loading distribution, which were greater than those observed in the OG and the YG. The OKG showed post-training 6 MW performance similar to that of the OG at baseline. Sit-to-stand performance and unilateral stand balance were further restored to post-training levels of the OG and to baseline levels of the YG. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance training partially restored functional, balance and lower-limb loading deficits in older women with TKA and OA in the contralateral knee. These results suggest that resistance training may be an important tool to counteract mobility impairments commonly found in this population.
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. To (1) compare the bone strength, lower limb muscular strength, functional balance performance, and balance self-efficacy between Ving Tsun (VT) martial art practitioners and nonpractitioners and (2) identify the associations between lower limb muscular strength, functional balance performance, and balance self-efficacy among the VT-trained participants. Methods. Thirty-five VT practitioners (mean age ± SD = 62.7 ± 13.3 years) and 49 nonpractitioners (mean age ± SD = 65.9 ± 10.5 years) participated in the study. The bone strength of the distal radius, lower limb muscular strength, functional balance performance, and balance self-efficacy were assessed using an ultrasound bone sonometer, the five times sit-to-stand test (FTSTS), the Berg balance scale (BBS), and the Chinese version of the activities-specific balance confidence scale, respectively. A multivariate analysis of covariance was performed to compare all the outcome variables between the two groups. Results. Elderly VT practitioners had higher radial bone strength on the dominant side (P < 0.05), greater lower limb muscular strength (P = 0.001), better functional balance performance (P = 0.003), and greater balance confidence (P < 0.001) than the nonpractitioners. Additionally, only the FTSTS time revealed a significant association with the BBS score (r = -0.575, P = 0.013). Conclusions. VT may be a suitable health-maintenance exercise for the elderly. Our findings may inspire the development of VT fall-prevention exercises for the community-dwelling healthy elderly.
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May 26, 2014