Reference values for the five-repetition sit-to-stand test: A Descriptive meta-analysis of data from elders

Neag School of Education, University of Connecticut, 358 Mansfield Road, Storrs, CT 06269-2101, USA.
Perceptual and Motor Skills (Impact Factor: 0.66). 09/2006; 103(1):215-22. DOI: 10.2466/PMS.103.5.215-222
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This meta-analysis was conducted to generate normative values for the 5-repetition sit-to-stand (STS) test suitable for application to individuals at least 60 years of age. A thorough review of the literature yielded 13 papers (14 studies) relevant to this purpose. After the exclusion of potentially unrepresentative data, meta-analysis of these 13 papers indicated that judgments about normal performance should be based on age. Analysis demonstrated that individuals with times for 5 repetitions of this test exceeding the following can be considered to have worse than average performance: 11.4 sec (60 to 69 years), 12.6 sec. (70 to 79 years), and 14.8 sec. (80 to 89 years).

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    • "Table 1 summarizes baseline assessment scores for each case study participant as well as average scores for the control group. All three case study participants demonstrated high fear of falling (FES-I > 27), and their FTSTS and TUG test scores also indicated that they were at higher risk of falls [11] [13]. Selected metrics are presented to illustrate scenarios where the data collected by the system could be of clinical value. "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes three retrospective case studies to illustrate the potential clinical value of a system capable of capturing objective gait metrics and environment data from older adults with a history of falls while they go about their daily lives. Participants in this study wore an inertial sensor above each ankle and a wearable camera around their neck for seven consecutive days. Selected metrics are presented to illustrate scenarios where the data collected by the system could be of clinical value. Evidence suggests that obtaining objective gait metrics and environment data from older adults may not only allow healthcare professionals to assess gait more accurately, but also to design treatment plans and falls prevention strategies that are more specifically tailored to each individual.
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    • "Grip strength measurement is used not only to describe the status of the hand but also to characterize upper extremity strength (Bohannon et al., 2006). It has also been used as a measurement of overall body muscle strength (Sallinen et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Limited research exists on functional tests in the discrimination of elderly individuals with high concern about falls from individuals with low concern about falls. The purpose of this study was to determine which functional test best discriminates between elderly women with low and high concern about falls. Methods: One hundred thirty-five elderly women (72.6 ± 4.8 years) were divided into two groups based on their Falls Efficacy Scale-International score: low concern (n = 56) and high concern (n = 79) about falls. Five functional tests were applied: Timed Up and Go test (TUG), unipodal stance test, five-repetition sit-to-stand test (5-STS), gait velocity, and grip strength. Factorial analysis and discriminant analysis were used. Results: Factorial analysis resulted in three factors that explained 83.8% of the total variance. Factor 1, with 49.5% of total variance explanation, was represented by the TUG, 5-STS, and gait velocity tests and was the only factor to discriminate between the groups, classifying correctly 68.9% of the observations. Among the original variables of Factor 1, the Fisher linear coefficient showed that the TUG was the most discriminant of the tests. Conclusion: The TUG test best discriminates elderly women with low and high concern about falls; therefore, it is an important test that should be performed during the assessment of elderly individuals afraid of falling.
    Experimental Aging Research 01/2015; 41(1):89-103. DOI:10.1080/0361073X.2015.978214 · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    • "Age-associated declines in motor function—the ability to perform physical tasks [Reuben et al. 2013]—are tightly coupled with quality of life [Cooper et al., 2011; Manini et al., 2007], independent-living status [Bischoff et al., 2003], disability [Guralnik et al., 1995; Rantanen et al., 1999], and mortality [Buchman et al., 2007; Rantanen et al., 2012; Stanaway et al., 2011]. Such associations are expected given that muscle strength [Forrest et al. 2007; Vandervoort 2002], walking endurance [Rikli and Jones 1999], sit-to-stand times [Bohannon 2006], and fine motor skills [Marmon et al. 2011, Enoka et al. 2003] all decline with advancing age. In contrast, fatigability [Kluger et al. 2013], the rate of decline in objective measures of motor performance, can be less [Hunter et al. 2005; Ditor and Hicks 2000; Griffith et al. 2010; Kent-Braun et al. 2002; Lanza et al. 2004] or greater [McNeil and Rice 2007] in older adults than young adults. "
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    ABSTRACT: Declines in neuromuscular function, including measures of mobility, muscle strength, steadiness, and patterns of muscle activation, accompany advancing age and are often associated with reduced quality of life and mortality. Paradoxically, older adults are less fatigable than young adults in some tasks. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of age on fatigability of the dorsiflexors and to evaluate the ecological validity of this test by comparing it to motor function subdomains known to decline with advancing age. The community-dwelling older adults (n = 52, 75.2 ± 6.0 years) were more fatigable than young adults (n = 26, 22.2 ± 3.7 years), as assessed by endurance time for supporting a submaximal load (20% of one-repetition maximum; 1-RM) with an isometric contraction of the dorsiflexor muscles (8.9 ± 0.6 min and 15.5 ± 0.9 min, p < 0.001), including participants matched for 1-RM load and sex (Y: 13.3 ± 4.0 min, O: 8.5 ± 6.1 min, n = 11 pairs, 6 women, p < 0.05). When the older adults were separated into two groups (65-75 and 76-90 yrs), however, only endurance time for the oldest group was less than that for the other two groups (p < 0.01). All measures of motor function were significantly correlated (all p < 0.05) with dorsiflexor endurance time for the older adults, and multiple regression analysis revealed that the variance in endurance time was most closely associated with age, steadiness, and knee flexor strength (R2 = 0.50, p < 0.001). These findings indicate that dorsiflexor fatigability provides a valid biomarker of motor function in older adults.
    Experimental gerontology 07/2014; 55. DOI:10.1016/j.exger.2014.03.018 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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