Genetic and molecular biological analysis of protein-protein interactions in coronavirus assembly.
ABSTRACT Virions of coronaviruses (CoVs) are pleiomorphic, with a roughly spherical structure brought about by cooperation among a relatively small set of structural proteins and a membranous envelope acquired from the endoplasmic reticulum–Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) (Fig. 1). Three integral membrane proteins reside in the envelope. The most salient of these is the spike glycoprotein (S), which mediates receptor attachment and fusion of the viral and host cell membranes. The membrane protein (M) is the most abundant virion component and gives the envelope its shape. The third constituent is the envelope protein (E), which, although minor in both size and quantity, plays a decisive role is envelope formation. In some group 2 CoVs, an additional protein, the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE), appears in the viral envelope. Finally, interior to the envelope, monomers of the nucleocapsid protein (N) wrap the genome into a helical structure.
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ABSTRACT: The coronavirus spike protein (S) forms the distinctive virion surface structures that are characteristic of this viral family, appearing in negatively stained electron microscopy as stems capped with spherical bulbs. These structures are essential for the initiation of infection through attachment of the virus to cellular receptors followed by fusion to host cell membranes. The S protein can also mediate the formation of syncytia in infected cells. The S protein is a type I transmembrane protein that is very large compared to other viral fusion proteins, and all except a short carboxy-terminal segment of the S molecule constitutes the ectodomain. For the prototype coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), it has previously been established that S protein assembly into virions is specified by the carboxy-terminal segment, which comprises the transmembrane domain and the endodomain. We have genetically dissected these domains in the MHV S protein to localize the determinants of S incorporation into virions. Our results establish that assembly competence maps to the endodomain of S, which was shown to be sufficient to target a heterologous integral membrane protein for incorporation into MHV virions. In particular, mutational analysis indicated a major role for the charge-rich carboxy-terminal region of the endodomain. Additionally, we found that the adjacent cysteine-rich region of the endodomain is critical for fusion of infected cells, confirming results previously obtained with S protein expression systems.Journal of Virology 10/2004; 78(18):9904-17. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the eukaryotic cell, both secreted and plasma membrane proteins are synthesized at the endoplasmic reticulum, then transported, via the Golgi complex, to the cell surface. Each of the compartments of this transport pathway carries out particular metabolic functions, and therefore presumably contains a distinct complement of membrane proteins. Thus, mechanisms must exist for localizing such proteins to their respective destinations. However, a major obstacle to the study of such mechanisms is that the isolation and detailed analysis of such internal membrane proteins pose formidable technical problems. We have therefore used the E1 glycoprotein from coronavirus MHV-A59 as a viral model for this class of protein. Here we present the primary structure of the protein, determined by analysis of cDNA clones prepared from viral mRNA. In combination with a previous study of its assembly into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, the sequence reveals several unusual features of the protein which may be related to its intracellular localization.Nature 01/1984; 308(5961):751-2. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The coronavirus E protein is a poorly characterized small envelope protein present in low levels in virions. We are interested in the role of E in the intracellular targeting of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) membrane proteins. We generated a cDNA clone of IBV E and antibodies to the E protein to study its cell biological properties in the absence of virus infection. We show that IBV E is an integral membrane protein when expressed in cells from cDNA. Epitope-specific antibodies revealed that the C terminus of IBV E is cytoplasmic and the N terminus is translocated. The short luminal N terminus of IBV E contains a consensus site for N-linked glycosylation, but the site is not used. When expressed using recombinant vaccinia virus, the IBV E protein is released from cells at low levels in sedimentable particles that have a density similar to that of coronavirus virions. The IBV M protein is incorporated into these particles when present. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy showed that E is localized to the Golgi complex in cells transiently expressing IBV E. When coexpressed with IBV M, both from cDNA and in IBV infection, the two proteins are colocalized in Golgi membranes, near the coronavirus budding site. Thus, even though IBV E is present at low levels in virions, it is apparently expressed at high levels in infected cells near the site of virus assembly.Journal of Virology 06/2000; 74(9):4319-26. · 5.08 Impact Factor