Article

Virus-induced type I IFN stimulates generation of immunoproteasomes at the site of infection.

Immunology Section and Liver Diseases Branch, NIDDK, NIH, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.
Journal of Clinical Investigation (Impact Factor: 13.77). 12/2006; 116(11):3006-14. DOI: 10.1172/JCI29832
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT IFN-gamma is known as the initial and primary inducer of immunoproteasomes during viral infections. We now report that type I IFN induced the transcription and translation of immunoproteasome subunits, their incorporation into the proteasome complex, and the generation of an immunoproteasome-dependent CD8 T cell epitope in vitro and provide in vivo evidence that this mechanism occurs prior to IFN-gamma responses at the site of viral infection. Type I IFN-mediated generation of immunoproteasomes was initiated by either poly(I:C) or HCV RNA in human hepatoma cells and was inhibited by neutralization of type I IFN. In serial liver biopsies of chimpanzees with acute HCV infection, increases in immunoproteasome subunit mRNA preceded intrahepatic IFN-gamma responses by several weeks, instead coinciding with intrahepatic type I IFN responses. Thus, viral RNA-induced innate immune responses regulate the antigen-processing machinery, which occurs prior to the detection of IFN-gamma at the site of infection. This mechanism may contribute to the high effectiveness (95%) of type I IFN-based therapies if administered early during HCV infection.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Peter-Michael Kloetzel, Jul 01, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
94 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Infections with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are a major cause of chronic liver disease. While the acute phase of infection is mostly asymptomatic, this virus has the high propensity to establish persistence and in the course of one to several decades liver disease can develop. HCV is a paradigm for the complex interplay between the interferon (IFN) system and viral countermeasures. On one hand HCV induces an IFN response, but on the other hand within the infected cell HCV is rather sensitive against the antiviral state triggered by IFNs. Numerous IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) have been reported to suppress HCV replication, but in only a few cases we begin to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying antiviral activity. It is becoming increasingly clear that blockage of viral replication is mediated by the concerted action of multiple ISGs that target different steps of the HCV replication cycle. This review briefly summarizes the activation of the IFN system by HCV and then focuses on ISGs targeting the HCV replication cycle and their possible mode of action.
    Journal of Hepatology 08/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2013.07.033 · 10.40 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Viral Hepatitis - Selected Issues of Pathogenesis and Diagnostics, 11/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-760-4
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vaccinia virus (VV) has been used as a vaccine, yet safety concerns remain due to its viral immunoevasive properties. Among these, VV infection of antigen presentation cells (APC) perturbs MHC class II-mediated antigen (Ag) presentation. The goals of this project include: 1) to define mechanisms by which VV disrupts class II presentation; and 2) to examine whether disruption of the class II pathway by VV alters T cell responses in vitro and in vivo. A significant reduction in the expression of the class II chaperone, invariant chain (Ii), was observed during the late stage of VV infection. Yet surface expression of MHC class II molecules was maintained along with cell viability. To examine whether VV acts solely to disrupt host protein synthesis, B cells were treated with an inhibitor of translation-cycloheximide (CHX). Like VV, CHX negatively regulated Ii protein expression and class II presentation. Ii proteolysis also contributed in part to reduce Ii expression in VV infected and CHX treated APC. Yet only VV infection altered lysosomal protease expression, potentially influencing Ii degradation. Over-expression or ectopic-expression of Ii partially protected cells from VV-induced class II dysfunction. These studies suggest VV destabilizes class II molecules by disrupting Ii expression. To examine the presentation of viral Ags by class II, CD4 T cells from VV-primed mice were used. Viral proteins were presented by class II shortly after APC exposure to low concentrations of VV. The presentation of VV Ags correlated temporally with reductions in exogenous peptide presentation. At higher MOI (≥ 1), class II presentation of VV Ags was reduced. To examine the in vivo effects of VV on Ag presentation, a mouse model of ovalbumin-induced airway hypersensitivity was used. Th2 cytokine production was reduced, while a novel inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-17 (IL-17) production was enhanced in asthmatic VV-infected mice. In health mice, repeated VV infections lead to enhanced CD8 T cell production of Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and IL-17. Finally, antibodies to a viral protein H3 were generated and shown to preserve class II presentation. Together these studies suggest VV disruption of the class II pathway may blunt T cell responses to VV.