Colorectal cancer prevention and screening: a Health Belief Model-based research study to increase disease awareness.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to evaluate the effects of a Health Belief Model-based colorectal cancer (CRC) education session on adult participants. Education sessions were conducted at a site chosen by the participants, such as their homes, in a mid-sized, mid-Western city. Thirty-one Caucasian adults participated. Eleven were men (35%) and 20 were women (65%). Study results reveal that the education sessions were an effective way to promote awareness of CRC prevention and screening. The participants' responses reflected a positive and significant (p < .0001) improvement in all areas except beliefs regarding maintenance of a healthy weight (p = .0574). The greatest effect was on men, current smokers, and those with a high school education or less. Education sessions were equally effective for auditory and visual learners. The 31 participants planned to share the information with at least 32 other individuals. The participants acquired an increased awareness of CRC prevention and screening. Willingness to discuss CRC after the education sessions may be significant, especially because the others may, in turn, share the information. Nurses need to be aware of CRC screening guidelines. The impact of patient teaching on this health promotion effort may reach beyond the patients who were in contact with the nurses. Public awareness might be further increased when patients share this information with others.
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ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an African American public health crisis. To inform interventions, the National Kidney Disease Education Program surveyed African Americans about their attitudes and behaviors regarding early detection of kidney disease and screening. Cross-sectional study. 2,017 African Americans from 7 states (Georgia, Maryland, Ohio, Mississippi, Louisiana, Missouri, and Tennessee) selected by using a random-digit dialing telephone survey (response rate, 42.4%). Demographic, risk, knowledge, and behavior variables. Perception of CKD as a top health concern, perceived risk of getting kidney disease, and accurate knowledge about CKD and its prevention. Only 23.5% of African Americans were screened for kidney disease in the last year. Although almost half (43.7%) of African Americans had a CKD risk factor, only 2.8% reported that CKD was a top health concern. Almost half knew the correct definition of kidney disease (48.6%), but few knew a test to diagnose CKD (23.7%) or that African Americans were at greater risk of developing CKD (18.1%). African Americans who had diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 3.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.17 to 4.76), hypertension (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.28 to 2.44), at least a bachelor's degree (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.66), who had spoken with a medical professional (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.19 to 2.85) or their family (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.38) about kidney disease, who knew that a family history of kidney disease is a risk factor (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.08 to 5.0), and who had been tested for CKD in the last year (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.03 to 2.0) were more likely to correctly perceive themselves at increased risk. Respondents were primarily African American women from urban areas. Most African Americans have poor knowledge about CKD, do not perceive it as an important health problem, and are not getting screened. To increase early detection of kidney disease through screenings, educational efforts linking kidney disease prevention to other diseases that are health priorities for African Americans are necessary.American Journal of Kidney Diseases 04/2008; 51(4):554-62. DOI:10.1053/j.ajkd.2007.12.020 · 5.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) has emerged as the second most common cancer in Asia. This study uses the Health Belief Model (HBM) to examine the factors associated with the uptake of CRC testing. A population-based telephone survey in which 1,004 randomly selected Chinese residents of Hong Kong aged between 30 and 65 yr were interviewed in 2006. Instruments were developed to measure the variables pertinent to the HBM, including perceived susceptibility, severity, benefit, barriers, and cues to action. The relationships of these predictors with CRC testing were examined using bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses. Ten percent of the respondents had undertaken a CRC screening test. In the multiple logistic regression analyses, knowledge factors that were positively associated with CRC testing included knowledge of CRC symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-9.11) and knowledge of CRC risk factors (aOR 2.61, 95% CI 1.16-5.88). Five of the variables pertaining to the HBM were significant correlates of CRC testing-perceived severity of CRC (aOR 0.28, 95% CI 0.13-0.65), perceived health and psychological barriers to CRC testing (aOR 0.42, 95% CI 0.21-0.84, 95% CI 0.21-0.85), perceived access barriers to CRC testing (aOR 0.22, 95% CI 0.05-0.85), physician's recommendation (indicator of cues to action) (aOR 23.50, 95% CI 10.66-51.80), and having health insurance (indicator of cues to action) (aOR 2.06, 95% CI 1.01-4.19). CRC testing compliance among this Asian population is low. Knowledge of CRC symptoms and risk factors are low. Perceived health, psychological, and access barriers to CRC testing are high. The physician's recommendation and having health insurance coverage significantly increase testing, but physicians mainly recommend patients with a family history of CRC for testing, and only around one-third of the population has health insurance.The American Journal of Gastroenterology 05/2008; 103(4):974-81. DOI:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2007.01649.x · 9.21 Impact Factor