Mutations in the ganglioside -induced differentiation-associated protein 1 (GDAP1) gene are common a cause of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT4A) disease with autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. To date more than twenty mutations in the GDAP1 gene have been reported in patients suffering from the demyelinating, axonal or mixed form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Only in a few CMT4A affected patients sural nerve biopsy findings have been provided. We report a homozygous Leu239Phe mutation in the GDAP1 gene in a 39-year-old female with a severe form of mixed axonal and demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, 13 loci and 10 genes have been identified in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disorders with a recessive mode of inheritance (AR-CMT). Accordingly, the entity of AR-CMT has been divided into subgroups on the basis of genetic linkage. Mutations in the MTMR2, MTMR13, GDAP1, PRX, CTDPI, KIAA1985 and NDRG1 genes have been shown to be associated with specific CMT phenotypes. In AR-CMT disorders associated with mutations in the LMNA and MED25 genes the number of patients is still too low to achieve reliable phenotype-genotype correlations. In the present review, we summarize molecular, electrophysiological, neuropathological and clinical aspects of AR-CMT disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the gene for the ganglioside-induced-differentiation-associated-protein 1 on 8q21 were recently reported to cause autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth sensorimotor neuropathy. We report a detailed clinical, electrophysiological and genetic study of two young patients harbouring missense GDAP1 mutations. The two patients presented severe neuropathy with an early onset. One of the mutations (Tyr279Cys) has never been hitherto reported. Electrophysiological investigations suggested a predominant axonal damage in both patients. Despite the similitude of the type of mutations and electromyographic features, the clinical course was different for the patients, highlighting the complexity of genotype/phenotype relationships among GDAP1 mutations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondria are remarkably dynamic organelles that migrate, divide and fuse. Cycles of mitochondrial fission and fusion ensure metabolite and mitochondrial DNA mixing and dictate organelle shape, number and bioenergetic functionality. There is mounting evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction is an early and causal event in neurodegeneration. Mutations in the mitochondrial fusion GTPases mitofusin 2 and optic atrophy 1, neurotoxins and oxidative stress all disrupt the cable-like morphology of functional mitochondria. This results in impaired bioenergetics and mitochondrial migration, and can trigger neurodegeneration. These findings suggest potential new treatment avenues for neurodegenerative diseases.