Association of cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms in a forensic population.
ABSTRACT The link between mental health issues and smoking has been an important area of investigation. However, little is known about this association in a general adult, male forensic population. The aim of this study was to identify demographic and clinical (depression and anxiety) variables that predict smoking in a forensic population. A large cohort of 353 inmates in a high-security prison underwent a psychiatric interview, including administration of the Montgomery-Asberg Rating Scale for Depression (MADRS) and Hamilton's Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A). Multiple regression analysis suggested that younger age and higher depression scores might predict the amount of daily smoking in this population. In contrast, anxiety symptoms were not an independent predictor for smoking in our study. These findings support the need for additional research to focus on those factors associated with smoking in forensic populations. Psychiatric screening for younger male individuals in forensic settings and targeted cognitive-behavioral interventions to treat depressed smokers may ameliorate the smoking abstinence rate in prisons.
- SourceAvailable from: Marina R Picciotto[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nicotine has been shown to have effects on anxiety and depression in both human and animal studies. These studies suggest that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) can modulate the function of pathways involved in stress response, anxiety and depression in the normal brain, and that smoking can result in alterations of anxiety level and mood. The effects of nicotine are complex however, and nicotine treatment can be either anxiolytic or anxiogenic depending on the anxiety model tested, the route of nicotine administration and the time course of administration. The paradoxical effects of nicotine on emotionality are likely due to the broad expression of nAChRs throughout the brain, the large number of nAChR subtypes that have been identified and the ability of nicotine treatment to both activate and desensitize nAChRs. Activation of nAChRs has been shown to modulate many systems associated with stress response including stress hormone pathways, monoaminergic transmission and release of classical neurotransmitters throughout the brain. Local administration studies in animals have identified brain areas that may be involved in the anxiogenic and anxiolytic actions of nicotine including the lateral septum, the dorsal raphe nuclei, the mesolimbic dopamine system and the hippocampus. The ensemble of studies to date suggest that under certain conditions nicotine can act as an anxiolytic and an antidepressant, but that following chronic use, adaptations to nicotine can occur resulting in increased anxiety and depression following withdrawal.Neuroreport 08/2002; 13(9):1097-106. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There has been little systematic study of "next-step" interventions for patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) who remain symptomatic despite initial pharmacotherapy. We present one of the first randomized controlled trials for refractory GAD, comprising double blind augmentation with olanzapine or placebo for patients remaining symptomatic on fluoxetine. Patients remaining symptomatic after 6 weeks of fluoxetine (20 mg/day) were randomized to 6 weeks of olanzapine (mean dose 8.7 +/- 7.1 mg/day) or placebo augmentation. Twenty-four of 46 fluoxetine-treated patients were randomized. Olanzapine resulted in a greater proportion of treatment responders based on a Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) end point score of 1 or 2 (Fisher's exact test [FET] p < .05) or a 50% reduction in Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA-A) score (FET p < .05). There were no other statistically significant differences for olanzapine compared with placebo augmentation in outcome measures, though rates of remission (HAM-A <or= 7) on olanzapine were higher at the level of a trend (FET, p = .1). Average weight gain for completers was greater with olanzapine than placebo augmentation (11.0 +/- 5.1 vs. -0.7 +/- 2.4 pounds: t = 6.32, p < .001). Olanzapine may have a salutary effect on anxiety for some GAD patients remaining symptomatic despite initial serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy, but the emergence of significant weight gain represents an important clinical consideration.Biological Psychiatry 03/2006; 59(3):211-5. · 9.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether nicotine dependence, classified by level of severity, was associated with other substance dependence, major depression, and anxiety disorders, we studied a random sample of 1007 young adults in the Detroit (Mich) area using the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule, revised according to DSM-III-R. The systematic coverage of DSM-III-R criteria of nicotine dependence provides an unprecedented opportunity to separate persons with nicotine dependence from the larger class of persons with a history of smoking and to examine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among persons with nicotine dependence and among nondependent smokers. The lifetime prevalence of nicotine dependence was 20%. Nicotine dependence was associated with alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine dependence. Controlling for the effects of other substance dependencies, persons with nicotine dependence had higher rates of major depression and anxiety disorders. The strength of these associations varied by level of severity of nicotine dependence. Nondependent smokers had higher rates of other substance dependencies, but not of major depression or anxiety disorders.Archives of General Psychiatry 01/1992; 48(12):1069-74. · 13.77 Impact Factor