Association of cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms in a forensic population.
ABSTRACT The link between mental health issues and smoking has been an important area of investigation. However, little is known about this association in a general adult, male forensic population. The aim of this study was to identify demographic and clinical (depression and anxiety) variables that predict smoking in a forensic population. A large cohort of 353 inmates in a high-security prison underwent a psychiatric interview, including administration of the Montgomery-Asberg Rating Scale for Depression (MADRS) and Hamilton's Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A). Multiple regression analysis suggested that younger age and higher depression scores might predict the amount of daily smoking in this population. In contrast, anxiety symptoms were not an independent predictor for smoking in our study. These findings support the need for additional research to focus on those factors associated with smoking in forensic populations. Psychiatric screening for younger male individuals in forensic settings and targeted cognitive-behavioral interventions to treat depressed smokers may ameliorate the smoking abstinence rate in prisons.
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smokers experience higher levels of depressive symptoms and are more likely to be diagnosed with depressive disorders than nonsmokers. To date, the nature of the smoking-depression relationship has not been adequately studied among heavy smokers, a group at elevated risk for poor health outcomes. In this study, we examined depressive symptom expression among heavy smokers while considering the moderating roles of smoking status, gender, and race. We also explored whether amount of tobacco usually consumed had an impact. METHODS: We extracted data from a large, highly nicotine-dependent, nontreatment cigarette smoking study sample (N = 6,158). Participants who consented were screened for major exclusions, and they completed questionnaires. RESULTS: Smokers reported a higher, clinically meaningful level of depressive symptoms relative to nonsmokers (27.3% of smokers vs. 12.5% of nonsmokers) scored above the clinical cutoff on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale (p < .001), which differed among race × gender subgroups. Further, amount of daily intake was inversely associated with self-report of depressive symptoms. For every 10-cigarette increment, the likelihood of scoring above the CES-D clinical cutoff decreased by 62% (p < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings improve our understanding of tobacco's influence on depressive symptom expression among heavy smokers, with implications for tailoring evidence-based tobacco treatments.Nicotine & Tobacco Research 04/2013; · 2.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to determine the association between mental disorders and cigarette consumption and nicotine dependence. Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a nationally representative survey of adults (N = 43,093) aged 18 and older. Relationships between specific anxiety disorders, mood disorders, nondependent cigarette use, nicotine dependence among the whole sample, and nicotine dependence among cigarette users were examined. After adjusting for demographics and comorbid mental disorders, generalized anxiety disorder (OR = 1.16 (1.29-1.51)), specific phobia (OR = 1.35 (1.21-1.51)), panic disorder (PD) (OR = 1.90 (1.62-2.23)), major depression (MDD) (OR = 1.31 (1.16-1.48)), and bipolar disorder (OR = 1.30 (1.09-1.54)) were associated with increased likelihood of nondependent cigarette use. Specific phobia (OR = 1.69 (1.49-1.91)), PD (OR = 1.82 (1.50-2.21)), MDD (OR = 1.59 (1.38-1.84)), and bipolar disorder (OR = 1.71 (1.39-2.09)) were associated with increased odds of nicotine dependence among the whole sample; social phobia (OR = 1.69 (1.19-2.40)), specific phobia (OR = 1.69 (1.43-2.01)), MDD (OR = 1.65 (1.34-2.02)), and bipolar disorder (OR = 2.38 (1.74-3.24)) were associated with increased risk of nicotine dependence among cigarette users. Specific anxiety disorders and mood disorders were uniquely associated with nondependent cigarette use, nicotine dependence among the whole sample, and the risk of nicotine dependence among cigarette users in the United States. Findings suggest that demographic differences, comorbid mood, anxiety, substance, and personality disorders all contributed to previously observed associations between mental disorders and nicotine dependence, explaining these links in some but not all cases.American Journal on Addictions 09/2012; 21(5):416-23. · 1.74 Impact Factor