When fine-needle aspiration biopsy cannot exclude papillary thyroid cancer: a therapeutic dilemma.
ABSTRACT Clinical or cytologic factors predictive of malignancy can be identified and incorporated into a treatment algorithm for patients with a fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) specimen interpreted as "suspicious for" papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).
Retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database.
University-affiliated tertiary care hospital.
Seven hundred thirty-eight patients with nodular thyroid disease evaluated between 1990 and 2004.
Patients with an FNAB specimen suspicious for PTC were identified. The frequency of carcinoma was determined. Clinical features were reviewed. The FNAB specimens suspicious for PTC were examined in a blinded fashion to determine if specific cytologic features were important in distinguishing benign vs malignant disease.
The presence of specific clinical and cytologic features was correlated with the incidence of carcinoma. A secondary outcome measure was to determine the value of frozen section examination in establishing the extent of thyroidectomy.
Forty-five patients (7%) had an FNAB specimen suspicious for PTC; 18 (40%) of these patients had carcinoma. Prominent nuclear inclusions and/or grooves, papillary formations, and the absence of colloid were features associated with PTC (P<.05). No clinical features reliably identified malignant disease. Frozen section examination results altered treatment in 15 (56%) of 27 patients.
An FNAB specimen suspicious for PTC is associated with a 40% incidence of carcinoma. Extensive nuclear inclusions and/or grooves, papillary formations, and the absence of colloid are predictive of carcinoma. Rare intranuclear inclusions and/or grooves alone in an otherwise benign-appearing specimen are uniformly associated with benign disease. Frozen section examination is of value in determining the extent of thyroidectomy.
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ABSTRACT: The best preoperative examination in Graves' disease with thyroid cancer still remains uncertain. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of thyroid cancer in Graves' disease patients, and to identify the predictive factors and ultrasonographic features of thyroid cancer that may aid the preoperative diagnosis in Graves' disease. This retrospective study included 423 patients with Graves' disease who underwent surgical treatment from 2002 to 2012 at our institution. The clinical features and ultrasonographic findings of thyroid nodules were recorded. The diagnosis of thyroid cancer was determined according to the pathological results. Thyroid cancer was discovered in 58 of the 423 (13.7 %) surgically treated Graves' disease patients; 46 of those 58 patients had thyroid nodules, and the other 12 patients were diagnosed with incidentally discovered thyroid carcinomas without thyroid nodules. Among the 58 patients with thyroid cancer, papillary microcarcinomas were discovered in 50 patients, and multifocality and lymph node involvement were detected in the other 8 patients. Multivariate regression analysis showed younger age was the only significant factor predictive of metastatic thyroid cancer. Ultrasonographic findings of calcification and intranodular blood flow in thyroid nodules indicate that they are more likely to harbor thyroid cancers. Because the influencing factor of metastatic thyroid cancers in Graves' disease is young age, every suspicious nodule in Graves' disease patients should be evaluated and treated carefully, especially in younger patients because of the potential for metastasis.World Journal of Surgery 10/2013; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of frozen section examination (FSE) for determining the extent of thyroidectomy in patients with nodular thyroid disease and fine-needle aspiration categorized as atypia/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AFLUS). A retrospective review of all patients operated on for a thyroid nodule and AFLUS was completed to determine the role of clinical examination and FSE in intraoperative decision making. One hundred twenty patients with AFLUS underwent thyroidectomy; 18 (15%) had carcinoma. FSE altered management in 36 (62%) of the 58 patients-32 with benign disease and 4 with cancer who underwent lobectomy and total thyroidectomy, respectively. Total thyroidectomy without FSE was performed in 61 (51%) patients with sonographically confirmed bilateral disease. FSE had a 36.4% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, 87% negative predictive value, and 88% accuracy. Ultrasound in combination with FSE is of value for determining the extent of thyroidectomy in patients with AFLUS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.The American Journal of Surgery 12/2014; · 2.41 Impact Factor