When fine-needle aspiration biopsy cannot exclude papillary thyroid cancer - A therapeutic dilemma
ABSTRACT Clinical or cytologic factors predictive of malignancy can be identified and incorporated into a treatment algorithm for patients with a fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) specimen interpreted as "suspicious for" papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).
Retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database.
University-affiliated tertiary care hospital.
Seven hundred thirty-eight patients with nodular thyroid disease evaluated between 1990 and 2004.
Patients with an FNAB specimen suspicious for PTC were identified. The frequency of carcinoma was determined. Clinical features were reviewed. The FNAB specimens suspicious for PTC were examined in a blinded fashion to determine if specific cytologic features were important in distinguishing benign vs malignant disease.
The presence of specific clinical and cytologic features was correlated with the incidence of carcinoma. A secondary outcome measure was to determine the value of frozen section examination in establishing the extent of thyroidectomy.
Forty-five patients (7%) had an FNAB specimen suspicious for PTC; 18 (40%) of these patients had carcinoma. Prominent nuclear inclusions and/or grooves, papillary formations, and the absence of colloid were features associated with PTC (P<.05). No clinical features reliably identified malignant disease. Frozen section examination results altered treatment in 15 (56%) of 27 patients.
An FNAB specimen suspicious for PTC is associated with a 40% incidence of carcinoma. Extensive nuclear inclusions and/or grooves, papillary formations, and the absence of colloid are predictive of carcinoma. Rare intranuclear inclusions and/or grooves alone in an otherwise benign-appearing specimen are uniformly associated with benign disease. Frozen section examination is of value in determining the extent of thyroidectomy.
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ABSTRACT: Subtotal thyroidectomy or lobectomy without radioactive iodide ((131)I) treatment is sufficient for postoperative treatment of incidental papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). Aggressive surgical treatment with (131)I therapy is indicated for nonincidental PTMC. This is a retrospective analysis of 335 PTMC patients who received primary thyroid surgical treatment and long-term follow-up in a single medical center. All PTMC patients were categorized as incidental (group I) or nonincidental (group II). Group II patients (209 cases) were categorized as intrathyroid (group II A), neck lymph node or local regional soft-tissue invasion (group II B) and distant metastasis (group II C) groups. In group I, 105 of 126 cases received only subtotal thyroidectomy or lobectomy. None died of thyroid cancer. Histological evaluation revealed multicentric PTMC in 12 (9.5%) and 52 (24.9%) cases (P < 0.05) in groups I and II, respectively. In group II, 55 of the 209 patients (26.3%) presented with extrathyroidal involvement. Two cases of relapse occurred in group I and 20 in group II by the end of follow-up. One patient in group II B and two patients in group II C died of thyroid cancer. Nine out of ten patients in group II C were diagnosed with distant metastases before primary thyroid surgical treatment. Subtotal thyroidectomy is effective surgical treatment for incidental PTMC. For nonincidental cases, aggressive treatment is essential for reducing the risk of cancer relapse or mortality following surgery.Annals of Surgical Oncology 05/2008; 15(8):2287-92. DOI:10.1245/s10434-008-9958-2 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Optimal surgical intervention is straightforward when a fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is diagnostic for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). However, if there are characteristics of an aspirate suspicious for PTC but not meeting criteria for diagnosis of PTC, the management is less clear. Of the 1,051 patients who underwent thyroid surgery at the University of Wisconsin between May 24, 1994, and October 21, 2004, 102 had preoperative FNA cytology that was diagnostic or suspicious for PTC. Within the subgroups of diagnostic for PTC and suspicious for PTC, we evaluated the accuracy of FNA, the utility of frozen section (FS), and the predictive value of demographic and pathologic variables. When diagnostic for PTC, FNA was 97% accurate and FS did not alter management. However, if an FNA was interpreted as suspicious for PTC, there was a 57% (17/30) likelihood of PTC on permanent histology. In this subgroup, FS led to the optimal operative procedure in 96% (25/26) of cases. With the exception of size greater than 4 cm, demographic and pathologic variables did not predict malignancy or increase the likelihood of an FNA being diagnostic for PTC. Intraoperative FS is a useful diagnostic tool when an FNA is suspicious for PTC.Thyroid 05/2008; 18(4):419-23. DOI:10.1089/thy.2007.0272 · 3.84 Impact Factor